Welcome to SpaceTime Series 26, Episode 91 with Stuart Gary. Today, we're exploring the intriguing geology of our celestial neighbors and our home planet. Discover how ancient asteroid impacts may have sparked ongoing volcanism on Venus, keeping its surface youthful despite the absence of plate tectonics. Speaking of plate tectonics, we delve into fresh evidence from a contentious debate regarding Earth's geologic history - new data suggesting our tectonic activity kicked off around 3.2 billion years ago. Next, journey with NASA's Juno spacecraft during its recent close encounter with Jupiter's volcanic moon, Io. As for our own planet, preliminary studies suggest July 2023 could be the hottest month ever recorded. We explore the worrying projections for the Gulf Stream, indicating a potential collapse by 2050 due to climate change. In health news, we question whether healthy individuals over 70 need a daily low-dose aspirin. And finally, for the skeptics out there, we discuss why cascading beer glasses do not constitute evidence of paranormal activity. Join us on this cosmic ride through space and time.
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STUART GARY: This is Space Time series 26 episode 91 for broadcast on the 31st of July 2023. Coming up on Space Time could ancient asteroid impacts have fueled Volcanism on Venus. A new date for the start of plate tectonics on planet Earth. And NASA's Juno spacecraft undertakes its latest and closest fly by yet of the volcanic Jovian moon. Io all that and more coming up on Space Time.
Welcome to Space Time with Stuart Garry.
STUART GARY: A new study claims the early impact history of Venus might explain how Earth's sister planet has maintained its youthful surface despite lacking plate tectonics. The findings reported in the journal Nature astronomy compared the early collision histories of the two planets and concluded that Venus likely experienced higher speed, higher energy asteroid impacts.
STUART GARY: The authors say these would have created a superheated core that promoted extended Volcanism and resurfaced the planet with floods of magma.
STUART GARY: The study's lead author Simone Mary from the South West Research Institute in Boulder Colorado says one of the mysteries of the inner solar system is that despite their similar size and bulk density, Earth and Venus are distinctly different planets, especially when it comes to the processes that move materials through each planet. And the whole thing's really funny because let's face it.
STUART GARY: Both planets were made at the same time in the same part of the solar system, out of the same materials. And yet they've gone on to very different destinies. Earth shifting plate tectonics continually reshapes its surface as chunks of the crust collide to form mountain ranges and in places promote Volcanism while other parts subduct under the continents.
STUART GARY: While new material breaks the surface at mid ocean ridges. On the other hand, Venus is no evidence of any type of plate tectonic activity, but it has more volcanoes than any other planet in the solar system. In fact, there are over 80,000 Venusian volcanoes at last count, that's 60 times more than the Earth.
STUART GARY: And they've played a major role in renewing Venus's surface through floods of lava which appear to be continuing right up to this day. Previous simulations have struggled to create scenarios which support this level of Volcanism.
STUART GARY: However, new computer modeling suggests that long lived Volcanism driven by early energetic collisions on Venus does offer a compelling explanation for its junk surface age. The massive volcanic activity is fueled by a superheated core resulting in vigorous internal melting. While Venus and Earth may have formed in the same neighborhood, slight differences in the two planets.
STUART GARY: Distances from the sun may have had a major effect, changing the impact velocities of asteroids and comets which hit the planets. Now, these differences arise because Venus is closer to the sun and moves faster around it, thereby energizing impact conditions.
STUART GARY: In addition, the tail of collisional growth is typically dominated by impactor Orting well beyond Earth's orbit. And that requires higher orbital eccentricities to collide with Venus rather than the Earth. And that results in far more powerful impacts.
STUART GARY: It's a simple equation, higher impact velocities melt more material melting as much as 82 per cent of Venus's mantle. And this, the authors say produces a mixed mantle of molten materials redistributed globally and a superheated core if impacts on Venus had significantly higher velocities than on Earth.
STUART GARY: A few large impacts could have drastically different outcomes with important implications for the subsequent geophysical evolution. The multidisciplinary team involved in the research combined expertise in large scale collision modeling and geodynamic processes to assess the consequences of these collisions for the long term evolution of Venus.
STUART GARY: Venus's internal conditions aren't well known. And before considering the role of energetic impacts geo dynamical models required special conditions in order to achieve the sort of massive Volcanism we see on Venus.
STUART GARY: But the authors found that once you input high energy impact scenarios into the model, it easily comes up with the extensive and extended Volcanism without needing to tweak the parameters. The new findings come in the wake of NASA's decision to undertake two new missions to Venus Veritas and Da Vinci and the European Space Agency isn't left out either.
STUART GARY: They're planning a new mission to Venus could envision we'll keep you informed. This is Space Time still to come. A new date for the start of plate tectonics on the Earth. And Juno undertakes its closest fly by yet of the volcanic Jovian moon Io all that and more still to come on Space Time.
STUART GARY: Well, it seems the ongoing debate about when plate tectonics began on planet Earth is continuing with new evidence suggesting subduction commenced around 3.2 billion years ago. The findings are important because Earth is the only planet known in our solar system to have significant plate tectonics and perhaps not coincidentally the only planet capable of hosting life.
STUART GARY: The findings reported in the journal Earth Science Reviews today follows the establishment of a new framework for dating Earth's evolution including the formation of the continents and of mineral deposits. The researchers studied Australia's abundant lead and zinc ore deposits along with a vast global database of geology.
STUART GARY: They determined that 3.2 billion years ago was a crucial point in Earth's history when the planet changed from what was essentially a layer cake structure to a mode of remixing, possibly driven by the start of global scale plate tectonics. A process which still dominates the Earth's system today.
STUART GARY: The study's lead author Luke Duet from Curtin University says one of the main questions to be answered was when continents as we know them today were first formed. Now to get an answer, the authors had to first determine when the composition of the continental crust began to differ significantly from the Earth's mantle where the continental material was extracted from.
STUART GARY: The challenge was to first understand how the Earth's mantle evolved since the great moon formation impact 4.5 billion years ago.
STUART GARY: That's when a mars sized planet which scientists have called thea collided with the early proto Earth, turning both bodies into a single molten Magma Ocean with some ejector then flung into orbit to form the moon. Meanwhile, the Magma Ocean restarted the entire differentiation process which would eventually form an inner and outer core surrounded by a thick mantle and a thin crust.
STUART GARY: Duet says scientists first need to reconcile this well established theory with the composition of the present day mantle. The authors use lead isotope compositions from rock samples from different parts of the Earth's surface as well as from ancient meteorites dating back to the formation of the solar system 4.6 billion years ago.
STUART GARY: This allowed them to reconstruct an interpretation of the Earth's mantle evolution. They could then compare its mantle evolution with that of the Australian continent by using measurements from large lead zinc deposits known for tracking continental crust deposition through time.
STUART GARY: Australia has an estimated 52 billion tons of lead zinc ore making it the second largest reserve in the world just behind China. They range from as old as 3.4 billion years in Western Australia's Pilbara Region down to relatively young deposits is 285 million years old and that makes them perfect for study.
STUART GARY: The team's analysis revealed that the lead zinc deposits started to exhibit significant differences from the Earth's mantle around 3.2 billion years ago. And deet says it's this period which is considered to be the point at which plate tectonics began to be the dominant driver of continental formation on the planet. This is a.
LUC DOUCET : Huge debate in the community. And if you look at the recent papers, so basically, as you said, some people think it start just right away after Earth formed and the moon is formed. And then there's a paper saying that it can start very, very late like at the geological timescale like 500 ago.
LUC DOUCET : So yeah, very recently. So there's a huge gap when we don't know where it starts. So basically, the idea is to try to find a way to quantify or find a proxy of when you think plate tectonic starts, which is a vast question, right?
LUC DOUCET : So in our case, what we, what we thought is when you have plate tectonics, what we know is to have plate tectonics, you you need to have like continental plates. So to form the continent and then you need the continent to evolve and to become very different from the from the mantle where they have been when they have been extracted.
LUC DOUCET : So to form the continental crust, you need, you have this like the planet is formed, then you have the core and then you have this layer of rocks, we call the mantle and then you need to melt the mantle and then you produce the Contin crust and then you need the crust to stay where it is like to float on the mantle.
LUC DOUCET : Yes, the thing is we think that in the beginning, we have evidence that in the beginning of the Earth's history, you can produce the crust. So we have evidence like in the zero where we know there is like constant cross material form very early on the question we don't know is is this rock going back to the metal already?
LUC DOUCET : So then you go back where you started and then you just remixed and then you put extract and remixed the thing you need to have the cross that been formed and then stay where it is. So, so to do that, we need to find some proxies, some evidence that the mantle and the crust become very different in terms of composition. And this is what we try to do this.
STUART GARY: How did you go about doing that?
LUC DOUCET : Basically, we are using lead isotopes. So lead contain different isotopes. So different, different type of lead. We have lead deposits that form throughout Earth's history and we just measure the composition of the on these deposits because they reflect the composition of the crust. The problem we had is we need the evolution of the mantle as well.
LUC DOUCET : So this is what we started to study how no the lead completion of the mantle. So to do that, we start from today, when you're on the ocean, the ocean crust and the initial ocean crust, it's extracted from the mantle as well and we know this has to be complied. So then we make a model to see how the lead to be completion of the metal evolved since the formation of the Earth.
LUC DOUCET : So we had to use the present day composition of the metal. But we have to model how the lead is the composition of the Earth was at the beginning. And to do that, we had to understand how the giant impact moon formation processes, you know, modify that because lead is an element that go to the rocks, but also go to the surface and basically can go to the core when you form the core.
LUC DOUCET : So we have to understand all these processes to basically to connecting these two points, which is the present day accomplishment of the mantle and the completion of the mantle back in the day, you know, when this mantle formed right at the beginning, right. So we define this model and then we just compare this evolution of the of the mantle with the completion of the cut of the crust.
LUC DOUCET : Measuring has to be completion within the lead deposits. And then we find that there is at the beginning. So from around 3.4 billion years old and 3.3 0.8 billion years old until 3.2 they were the same completion, the metal and the crust is the same. But after that, you see a difference, you see that the the continent crust is beginning to be more different.
LUC DOUCET : And these differences then is, is significant after 3.2 until today. So that's what we say. Ok, we have the formation of the crust at the time and then it has to become more and more different with time. So then we say, oh, so then this is at the time where we should have what we call something like modern like pla formation, starting at the time.
STUART GARY: It's all complicated. However, by thinking, well, especially in wa where you've got this huge u shaped craton under that part of the crust, which goes down many kilometers into the mantle, got one bit popping up in the south west of Western Australia and the other bit popping up in the Pilbara Region.
STUART GARY: You've got that as a problem. You've also got the fact that in somewhere like Canada, you've got other dates using as a dating technique when the continental crust is like at all form.
LUC DOUCET : Yes. Yes. It's a very tough job. So, but the, the, the thing that it's I would say originally in our research is usually we, we know very little on how the man evolve, right? And we have those continental crust, releases, you know, like in the Pilbara, in New Y in Canada, in Russia, in the United States, Southern America pretty much everywhere, right?
LUC DOUCET : But the thing is when, when you look at these, these relis, you mostly have relis of the crust and as I said, so you can form the crust very early on. You don't know if this crust. So we have some bits of crust, but you don't know how much crust has been formed at the time.
LUC DOUCET : Because if you go to to Jack Hills in the northern, you, you say, oh, we have rocks that we can find 4.4 billion, you know, small grains. But are those grains representative of like huge continents or just small bits of continental crust? Right?
LUC DOUCET : So originally as a researcher, we compare what we know about the crust, but also what we know about the mantle. And this is really like this crust mantle relationship that's really critical to see what happened. This is where we, we managed to find this kind of a difference between the mantle and the crust, which is until now was quite obscure.
LUC DOUCET : So that's something we really like in this work is we would be able to connect the mantle and the crust. And we find this 3.2 billion years old time where we think there is extraction and what is interesting is we are not the only one saying 3.2 was a tipping point.
LUC DOUCET : For example, there is a paper published in nature, I think maybe this week or something using another isotropic systems or titanium isotopes, which is a bit novel novel tool people are using and they are finding pretty much the same in the same time frame.
LUC DOUCET : So they say after 3.5 I 3.2 we have a major change in iso composition between the crust and the mantle. So this is quite interesting to see this time period is making more and more important in our understanding how platonic and formed. So there is a line of evidence. I think that this time is maybe the tipping point, we've got.
STUART GARY: Planet Earth forming 4.6 billion years ago. And then about 4.5 billion years ago, the a mars sized body slammed into this proto Earth and all the differentiation that had taken place up until then that was all wiped out. The whole thing became one huge molten Magma Ocean again.
STUART GARY: And then the differentiation process recommenced at 4.5 billion years, heavy elements heading towards the center, lighter elements heading towards the surface and then as it cooled, as it slowly cooled and solidified, we have lots of radioactive elements in there and lots of heat inside the planet. And that then starts this conveyor belt of plate tectonics which is still going on today.
LUC DOUCET : The keyword is cooling. Think right at the beginning, the mantle was so dynamic that everything that got up, maybe some piece would stay there like in the Pilbara or you know, very small pieces, but the majority would go down. And at some point because the Earth is cooling, then the convection in the metal became less dynamic and then it followed the crust to stay there and then to start to evolve to the crust. We know today.
STUART GARY: Now you've got samples from one location.
LUC DOUCET : So basically for for in our research, we use the database for, for the crust, we use the database from the science Australia because Australia it's really cool because there is lead deposits from 3.8 to not 3.6 sorry to to today, right?
LUC DOUCET : And Australia, the Elco in Australia is the Commonwealth survey, but also all the states doing a very good job of, you know, documenting all the mineral deposits and doing all the geochemical data. So we have like huge database and so we use all this wealth of data to constrain what's going on for the crest evolution. So that's what we did for the crest and for the mantle, what we did.
LUC DOUCET : So we used an online databases where we have a huge amount of data for entire Earth history for the mental mental derived rock. So we have a comprehensive database of basically the entire Earth history. And for both the crest and the mental recall. So that's what we did.
STUART GARY: That's Luke Duet from Curtin University and this is Space Time still to come. NASA's Juno spacecraft undertakes its closest fly by yet of the volcanic Jovi moon IO. And later in the science report, a preliminary analysis by the World Meteorological Organization suggests that July 2023 will be listed as the hottest month on record for planet Earth. All that and more still to come on Space Time.
STUART GARY: NASA's Juno spacecraft has just completed its latest flyby of the spectacular volcanic Jovian moon. Io. The spacecraft made its closest approach yet to the fiery world coming within 22,000 kilometers of its lava covered surface.
STUART GARY: The data collected by Juno's Jovin infrared oral mapper and other science instruments will provide a wealth of information on the hundreds of erupting volcanoes pouring out molten magma and sulfurous gasses over the surface of the volcano. Festoon moon.
STUART GARY: Juno principal investigator Scott Bolton from the South West Research Institute in San Antonio Texas says while the aurora mapper was actually designed to study Jupiter's polar aurora, its ability to identify heat sources is proving indispensable in the hunt for active volcanoes on IO.
STUART GARY: He says as Juno gets closer with each flyby, the mapper and other science instruments all add to science's library of data on the moon allowing researchers to not only better resolve surface features but to understand how they change over time. Launched back in 2011, June has been studying the Jovian system since 2016 and has just commenced the third year of its extended mission in.
SCOTT J. BOLTON: Roman mythology, which of course is rooted from Greek mythology. Juno was the wife and sister goddess of Jupiter and Jupiter was sort of being naughty with some friends. So he cast a veil of clouds around himself and his friends. But of course, Juno was a fairly powerful God herself and used her powers to look right through the clouds and see the true nature of Jupiter and understand what he was really up to.
SCOTT J. BOLTON: And that's exactly what the Juno spacecraft does for us is that it goes there with special instruments in a special orbit and uses its powers to see right through Jupiter's clouds and understand its true nature, which is holding these secrets for us about how the solar system formed and where we all came from.
SCOTT J. BOLTON: Juno spins like a propeller where the propeller is kind of facing the sun because they're all solar powered.
SCOTT J. BOLTON: If you spin something, it stays spinning, it's like a gyroscope. We can use a spinning spacecraft to let each instrument get its turn to see Jupiter. We get to go very close to the planet inside the radiation belts, instead of outside the radiation belt, we're in a polar orbit.
SCOTT J. BOLTON: So by small adjustments of the time we can map the entire planet, we can get repeated stripes at different longitudes as Jupiter spins underneath us, it.
SCOTT J. BOLTON: Does mean that Juno is the polar regions to a greater extent than with other spacecraft. But I think the most important thing is that it gets in very close to the planet. As part of that ellipse brings it in a few 1000 miles above those clouds, very close near the equator.
SCOTT J. BOLTON: We go over the poles of Jupiter. That means we can study the magnetosphere in a different way.
SCOTT J. BOLTON: A magnetosphere is the sphere of influence of a magnetic field. So a planet that has a magnetic field has a magnetosphere when its sphere of influence extends beyond the planet out into space and affects the region around the magnetosphere of Jupiter is vast. So if you think of Jupiter being 10 times the size of the Earth and the magnetosphere is 100 times the size of Jupiter.
SCOTT J. BOLTON: I would expect you to know to tell us more about how planets work, meaning how the heat gets out what kinds of flows exist inside the body, how magnetic fields get generated, learning what Jupiter is made of, we will learn such a wide range of things for indeed, Jupiter is the most massive planet in the solar system. It is the body you want to understand in order to understand the architecture of everything else, including.
STUART GARY: Slightly larger than the Earth's moon. Io is the world in constant torment. Not only is Jupiter, the biggest planet in our solar system for ever pulling on it gravitationally, but so too are Io's Galilean siblings, the ice world of Europa and the biggest moon in the solar system, Ganymede.
STUART GARY: The result is that Io's constantly being stretched and squeezed, generating lots of internal friction in the process that friction is super heating the moon's internal structure and that's resulted in a volcanic cauldron with dozens of volcanoes constantly erupting over its surface.
STUART GARY: During Juno's last fly by of AO back in May, the Juno cam imager took a picture from 35,600 kilometers showing a smudge at the moon's ver region near the equator. Now these smudges are often smoking guns to planetary scientists.
STUART GARY: Jason Perry from the University Of Arizona's High Rise Operations Center in Tucson says that when he compared it to visible light images taken of the same area during the Galileo mission and the new horizon fly by in 1999 and 2007, he was excited to see changes where the lava flow field had expanded to the west. And another volcano just north of Volland had fresh lava flows surrounding it during the say May 16th pass.
STUART GARY: Juno's Jovin Infra Aro mapper found a smoking gun of its own, capturing the 202 kilometer wide Loki Patera, the largest volcanic depression on IO appearing to be active. The observations showed that lava could be bubbling onto the surface of the area in the North West in the process creating a larva lake to the south and East.
STUART GARY: It's a fascinating observation and one of many yet to come thanks to NASA's Juno spacecraft, this Space Time and time that to take a brief look at some of the other stories making news in science. This week with the science report, a preliminary analysis suggests that July 2023 will be listed as the hottest month on record for the planet.
STUART GARY: Largely because of global warming. The World Meteorological Organization, the European Union funded Copernicus climate change service and Leipzig University have combined temperature data for July finding that it will be the hottest July on record by a wide margin.
STUART GARY: July 2023 will be 0.2 °C warmer than the previous warmest July, which is back in 2019 and it follows on from the planet's hottest June on record. And the addition of an El Nino event which began back in May will further boost global temperatures as a result of this climate pattern's combination with climate change makes it highly likely that more months this year will also set new temperature records.
STUART GARY: But the authors say that July 2023 won't just be the hottest month since records began, but it's also likely to be the hottest month in 120,000 years.
STUART GARY: They base that claim on evidence of past temperatures found in ancient sediments and layers of ice as well as in other Pado climate records. The World Meteorological Organization says these temperatures are related to heat waves in large parts of North America, Asia and Europe, which along with wildfires in countries including Canada and Greece have had major impacts on people's health, the environment and national economies.
STUART GARY: On July the sixth, the daily average global surface temperature on planet Earth surpassed the record set in August 2016 making it the hottest day on record with July the fifth and July the seventh only just behind.
STUART GARY: Meanwhile, there are now growing fears that the Gulf Stream could collapse by 2050 because of climate change. A report in the Journal Nature Communications claims that contrary to recent IPCC assessments, Dennis, researchers say the Atlantic Meridiana overturning circulation, that's the large system of ocean currents that carries warm water from the tropics to the North Atlantic could collapse any time after 2025.
STUART GARY: Under current rates of greenhouse gas emissions. The team have analyzed sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic between 18 70 2020 in order to get a proxy for the Gulf Stream, finding early warning signals of a big change in the system which might suggest it could shut down as early as 2025 and certainly no later than 2095.
STUART GARY: They say that the last time this kind of abrupt climate change happened, it led to average northern hemisphere temperatures fluctuating by 10 to 15 °C over a decade.
STUART GARY: A re analysis of Australian clinical trial data has shown that healthy people over the age of 70 shouldn't take a daily low dose aspirin as it could significantly increase the risk of brain bleeds with no reduction in the risk of a stroke.
STUART GARY: The findings reported in the journal of the American Medical Association are a re analysis of the Australian Led Asbury study and extends the trial's findings by focusing on stroke and bleeding events.
STUART GARY: The authors say the study supports recent recommendations that low dose aspirin should not be prescribed for primary prevention. In healthy older adults, reports of glasses of beer falling skidding, sliding or being pushed off a table or bar by some invisible unknown force.
STUART GARY: In other words, a ghost are pretty common in the paranormal world and the events described are certainly real. However, while a paranormal explanation may be thrilling, Tim Mendham from Australian Skeptics points out the world of science offers a far more rational explanation.
TIM MENDHAM: Right now. You may be surprised to know that at Skeptic Central, we get sent videos of ghosts and strange paranormal phenomena all the time like every day and often they happen in pubs which is interesting because they have spirits there.
TIM MENDHAM: Of course, pubs also have CCTV within the pub and you'll see these little videos of people sitting in the pub drinking and then off on a sideboard somewhere or on the bar, suddenly this glass will seem to move and fall off the side and smash et cetera.
TIM MENDHAM: And people instantly say ghosts, poltergeists are moving the glasses around and it's interesting and it's fun and you wonder what the CCTV is doing, looking at the wrong part of the pub, but never mind, there are explanations for it. It does happen, but there are explanations for it, which are quite sort of mundane and one is basically the glass is capturing air under the bottom.
TIM MENDHAM: Now, if you look at most glasses they will have on the bottom, on the base of the glass, there's a rim and there's a little bit of indentation underneath. And if you, if you put the glass down, often not a full glass, it doesn't have to be a full glass. It's a bit harder to move.
TIM MENDHAM: But an empty glass or almost empty glass, you put it down on the surface of the bar and you're presuming you're not having a mat or something on the bar, but it's a straight sort of polished surface and the air gets captured smooth bar top, doesn't it really ones? No, not the ones you slide down to the person at the end of the bar.
TIM MENDHAM: Yeah, it has to be smooth, very smooth. If there's sunlight on the glass, it will actually make the air, the air that's underneath, that's trapped underneath the glass expand, right? If the surface of the bar is warm, what happens is that the air expands and therefore creates a little bubble underneath the glass, which is easier to move to slide.
TIM MENDHAM: If its own accord. Right. And if there's an uneven surface or if there's a push or who knows what it might just move a bit. And if it happens to be beside the edge of the bar, it will possibly fall off.
TIM MENDHAM: It's not going to move a huge amount. It's not going to move from one end of the bar to the other, but they do move. And if you're captured on CCTV, it looks impressive, quite fun because I can't explain it. It's the old story, I can't explain it. Therefore, it must be a ghost, which means I've just explained it.
TIM MENDHAM: There's a similar phenomenon called the Leen frost effect. When there's a heat underneath your sweat, you form a liquid, say under your foot when fire walking. If you ever try that, have you tried that?
TIM MENDHAM: I have, I know it hurts, but there's a layer of, you don't stop, keep going, you cannot stop and you have to make sure that the coals are actually sort of settled down to just glowing. But if it forms a liquid, this is a suggestion that it forms a liquid under your feet, which is sweat or vapor or whatever. And then that will act as a little barrier for a short time, right?
TIM MENDHAM: Don't stand on the coals, it's not going to work. But if you move very quickly across the coal surface and don't try this at home, that it might give you a sort of very, very short term protection against being burnt, no guarantees. It doesn't always work. And it's a similar thing.
TIM MENDHAM: Therefore, it's a layer of air or liquid that is sort of acting as a buffer against gravity or against friction. It acts as a buffer against friction and therefore the things can move a bit right off their own accord. And therefore, in a video, it looks good, but don't take it as evidence of being haunted.
STUART GARY: That's Tim Mendham from Australian Skeptics and that's the show for now. Spacetime is available every Monday, Wednesday and Friday through Apple Podcasts, itunes, Stitcher, Google Podcast, pocket casts, Spotify a cast Amazon music bites dot com, Soundcloud, YouTube, your favorite podcast download provider and from Space Time with Stewart Gary dot com.
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