SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 82
*New type of ancient massive explosion explains mystery star
A massive explosion ten times more powerful than a supernova - known as a magneto-rotational hypernova -- could provide the power to produce one of the most mysterious stars in the galaxy.
*The Milky Way’s supermassive black hole has a snack
Astronomers have come up with two possibilities to explain a sudden outburst of activity from the Milky Way’s monster central black hole Sagittarius A*.
*Virgin Galactic’s fourth test flight
Virgin Galactic founder Sir Richard Branson has undertaken a successful sub orbital ballistic test light aboard the company’s VSS Unity rocket plane.
*Metal fatigue or micrometeor impact the likely cause of an ongoing leak aboard the International space station
An investigation by the Russian Federal Space Agency Roscosmos says the ongoing air leaks on the Zvezda module of the International Space station were most likely caused by either metal fatigue or micrometeor impact.
*The Science Report
A third of COVID-19 victims suffer long COVID.
Climate change is making heatwaves more likely.
A new species of iguanodon-like hadrosaur dinosaur discovered in Spain.
Beijing turning the disputed South China Sea into a cesspool of feces.
Skeptic's guide to intelligent design.
For more SpaceTime and show links: https://linktr.ee/biteszHQ
SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 82 AI Transcript
[00:00:00] Stuart: [00:00:00] This is space-time series 24 episode 82 for broadcast on the 19th of July, 2021. Coming up on space time, the ancient explosion, bigger than any supernova, the Milky way supermassive black hole has a snack and middle fatigue or possibly micrometeorite impact the most likely cause of an ongoing leak aboard the international space station, all that and more coming up.
I'm space-time welcome to space time with steward, Gary.
A massive explosion, 10 times more powerful than a supernova being described as a Magneta rotational hype Inova could provide the power to produce [00:01:00] one of the most mysterious stars in the galaxy. The star is located some 7,500 July is a way in the halo of the Milky way. Galaxy. As supernova is the explosive death of a star, a blessed so powerful.
It can out shine an entire galaxy for weeks on end and even more powerful explosion than any supernova is our hyper Nova a blast generated by the merger of two neutron stars. And these have recently been confirmed as the source of the rapid neutron capture nuclear synthesis process, which is thought to forge the periodic tables, heaviest elements.
But that's still not enough to explain the levels or types of elements found in the spectrum of this mysterious star, this unusually strong status drawing blast. The Magnetar attentional hypen over is the most likely explanation for the presence of unexpectedly high amounts of very specific signature elements in this [00:02:00] engine style.
These include zinc, uranium europium and possibly gold. All of which seemed to have been detected in this extremely primitive star cataloged as SMSs J two double zero three, double 2.54 minus double 1 4 2 0 3 0.3. It's Karen addressing the sky. The star is what's known as a population, two star. That's a star produced directly out of the elements forged in the explosive core collapse, supernovae marking the death of the very first stars in the universe known as population three stars.
Population three stars are unique. They will produce directly out of the hydrogen and helium produced in the big bang 13.82 billion years ago. There thought they were first formed somewhere around 300 to 400 million years after the big bang ending the cosmic dark ages and triggering the APAC of Ray and ization, the process which made the universe [00:03:00] looked away way that's today.
Astronomers believe these population three stars would have been extremely massive, possibly even hundreds to thousands of times, the mass of the sun. They will also have been very luminous and immensely hot with virtually no metals in their composition, except possibly for intermixing ejector from nearby population three supernova.
By the way astronomy has referred to all elements as metals, other than hydrogen and helium, the primary elements produced in the big bang and being so massive and luminous. These population three stars would have burned through their fuel supplies very quickly living for perhaps just a few million years at most, rather than the 12 billion years, our son is expected to shine.
And when they died being said, big population, three stars either turned into black holes or neutron stars with much of their mass flying across the cosmos to feed the next generation of stars. Those known as population two stars, the oldest stars still in existence today. [00:04:00] Better report in the journal nature shows that SMSs J two double zero three double 2.54 minus double 1 4 2 0 3 0.3 contains larger amounts of specific metals than other population.
Two stars astronomers have calculated that only the violent collapse of a very early star amplified by rapid rotation and the presence of a strong magnetic field could possibly account for the additional neutrons required to produce this particular star. See the stars and iron to hydrogen ratio, some 3000 times lower than that, of our sun, which means it's very rare and extremely metal poor, but the fact that it contains larger than the expected amounts for specific heavier elements means it's even rare.
One of the study's authors professor, Gary to Casta headed the first stars team in Astro 3d at the Australian national university says rates in entities of the star deaths have become well known in recent years. So the amount of heavy elements they produce is also well [00:05:00] calculated. But for this particular star, the numbers simply don't add up.
The extra amount of these elements had to have come from somewhere else. The authors have now found observational evidence for the first time directly indicating that there is a different kind of hyper Nova one producing all stable elements in the periodic table at once a core collapsed explosion of a fast spinning strongly magnetised massive star.
The only thing that could explain the results. And over have been known about since the 1990s, in fact, high zinc, abundance, such as that found in this star is a definite marker of a hypen over a very energetic type of supernova. However, this is the first time when combining both rapid rotation and strong magnetism it's been detected.
And this specific population two star was formed around 13 billion years ago out of a chemical soup that contained the remains of this hyper node. The star was first identified using the sky map as survey of the Southern sky by the ANU siding spring [00:06:00] observatory with follow-up observations then made using the European Southern observatory is very large telescope in Chile.
The customer says its discovery reveals a new pathway for the formation of heavy elements in the early universe we've been using this car, not the telescope. That's not experienced those three. What's the new south Wales to search for family metal posts. Yeah. Uh, have a bonuses like less than 1000, the abundances of the elements in some, uh, provide images.
And it has a special set of filters that allows us to isolate candidates, extremely middle pool stuff. They follow those up with the 2.3 minutes cup, also a fun experience to see which ones really are expanding and the best of those candidates. We then site lots of telescopes in Chile to get detailed observations in which we can measure detail.
And in that program, we came across this stuff, which has exceptionally high bonuses with some of the elements for the MIT, basically new Chuck capture processes. And that's what set it apart from the other [00:07:00] hundred odd stuff that we have this kind of data for the characteristics of this is that it has high nitrogen, which is a signature of rapid rotation in the progenitor of its produce the elements, the nitrogen Panasas and tells us that it was rapidly.
Yeah, rapidly. That's heading style. You get mixing processes that convert carbon nitrogen. It has hot pink, which is an indicator that the Explorer supernova explosion, that was the end of this as well, and very high energy. And that's why we call it hot. We know from that you can get a neutron, which elements from the merger of two neutron stuff.
And that's my wellbeing, the importance. Cycled out process elements as well, that we don't think that that could have happened at the very earliest time, because you need time for the two massive stars to evolve supernova form of neutron stars, and then have that neutron stars [00:08:00] and this, you know, that's kind of tight at least 16 to a hundred million years.
And we believe that yeah. Formed before that possibility. So we do believe that the op process elements for magnesium rotational.
Yeah, that was one of the big questions. It wasn't a, where were the neutron stars? The one enough of them around at the time they wouldn't, there was simply, hasn't been enough time in the U S part of the galaxy to have occurred. So this event would also have mice to golf. And then it has very high abundances of elements like uranium and Berrien.
And those are elements to the mice in processes that needs lots of ritual. And we think it does mutuals come from the bag. These are rotation explosion off the hotline. Ed hopping over would have been water population. Three-star yes, we can explain all the abundances in the stuff by them. That's an explosion of a single zero metal.
The city stuff is not, it's probably somewhere between 25 [00:09:00] and 40 times the mass. What do we know about population three stars? Uh, the so-called population, three stuff, consistent, only apologetic and Haley and the same. And that meant that their evolution was different from stuff like the sun, for example, which has enough other elements to burn in a different way.
Those first don't seem to have any that have lived long enough to still be around, to die. All we can say to die of the first generation of population to stuffs the ones that formed from the ejector population three. So we can not only learn about the population three stuff, but studying the distributions of different elements in the population, two styles, the one is made from the ejector.
So we can learn about the masses of the stars. We can learn about some of them equally as synthetic processes. We can run about explosion mechanisms while we've been searching. Well, you know, the whole community has been very long time for a genuine population, three stuff we have never found and [00:10:00] probably won't hit upon a star that really does consistently.
We don't think at the various daily times in the galaxy slot that any loan messed up. What has lived long enough to still be around the day before things like James Webb w looked further back than the 13.4 billion years of Hubble. Will that be far enough back to find population three stars, assuming that they are around what?
300 to 400 million years out? Yeah, that's right. That's interesting question. And we'll like to see what things we have actually. It certainly will be out to look back to the earliest, a box of stuff, emotion in very what will be very distant, very young galaxies. Whether we can see an individual star at that point upon, it's hard to know.
Talk of rayon ization, you'll see the end of the cosmic dark ages, but you won't, you might not be able to see individual stars in that image. No, you might. You might be able to see a clustered stuff. That's probably even still [00:11:00] beyond this. But the guy in smart people will like smart influences from the observations, tend to be able to learn what's on the mind.
What we see is the IMU led project that is in silent Springs, arbitrary Western new south Wales. It's undertaking a survey of the entire Southern sky in six different sources that go from the ultraviolet top of the spectrum foods that they saw red. And basically it will ultimately produce a catalog of something like 6 million objects in the Southern sky that people can access.
And one about the brightness of stars, the cosmos, the temperatures. And when you combine that with. Motions that we can get from the gosh by postcode. We can learn a lot about this kinematics with the sauce, to the bowl bullets about the center of the galaxy. So the survey's been going for about five years now.
We've had three data releases. The diner is publicly accessible. It's gone up. I thought I knew.edu that I knew I, and people can download images. By the fall of the sky, we expect to finish the survey in about a year and a half. [00:12:00] Why are so many of the oldest known stars found in the halo of the galaxy? Uh, well, that's a fairly simple answer.
So that in the sense that we think the high load, which is this sort of roughly spherical Allegion surrounding the, just cause the galaxy, but that was the first operation occurred while the gas was still bicycle in a roughly circle shape. It hadn't yet collapsed down into the theist where we see. Stuff, emotional galaxy to that.
You've got an age for when this staff formed of around 13 billion years. That must also therefore give you a set of parameters for when population three-star. Yes. I mean, we can't actually eyesight this particular stuff. It's very hard to get the idea of the individual stuff. So basically we're assuming that because it is so very little for a one, 3000 of the, a solid.
Is that it did fall at very early time and models of how the elements filled up with time, suggest that you get to these kinds of abundances about 60 to a hundred million years after [00:13:00] the first stars form. Okay. So the stock could be much older than 13 billion years. Then we know the age of the universe.
Analysis of the cosmic lives 0.8 billion and then 300 to 400 million years after that we had the first stars form. That's when we think first population three stars formed. And if they lived for maybe just two or 3 million years, you think they a bit like that, but that's true. They're very, very messy burn their fuel very quickly.
And. Generally way behind. In most cases, the black Hawks, Gary DeCosta headed the first stars team at Astro 3d at the Australian national university. And this is space-time still the com our Milky way. Supermassive black hole as a snack and Richard Branson undertakes a successful suborbital test flight on Virgin Galactic's unity, rocket plane, all that, and more store to cat.
Um, space time.
[00:14:00] Jonathan has ever come up with two possibilities to explain a sudden outburst of activity from the Milky way central supermassive black hole Sagittarius, a star. This monster black hole, which contains some 4.3 million times. The mass of our sun is located at around 27,000 light years away at the center of our galaxy.
In fact, our entire galaxy appears to revolve around. Supermassive black holes are found at the centers of most, if not all galaxies, but unlike the very active supermassive black holes often seen blasting out powerful streams of material and energy from the centers of other galaxies, Sagittarius, a star, a piece to be relatively quiet.
However in May, 2019 cemeteries, a star workup and [00:15:00] began feeding on material, creating around the black holes of at horizon. A point of no return beyond which matter falls forever into the black hole singularity. It suddenly produced an unprecedented ne infrared flare more than a hundred times brighter than usual lasting around two and a half hours.
In fact, it was even more than twice as bright as any previously measured flare coming from Sagittarius, a star. And it triggered an extended period of prolonged increased activity with an unusual number of strong flares lasting at least half a year. The limit of the currently analyzed data. Now a report in the astrophysical journal letters suggests the sudden increased amount of material triggering Sagittarius.
A star sudden flare activity may have been caused by either disintegrating, G clouds or shredding stars. Gee clouds. I thought to be either started with extended gaseous envelopes or pure gas clouds, or a combination of both those orbiting knees Sagittarius. A star would lose mass through friction as they orbit around the [00:16:00] black hole, stretches and elongates them, causing them to create mass onto the black hole at Paris.
The authors suggest that the 2019 flares from the galaxy supermassive black hole could have been caused by creating material drawn from the G one and G two clouds as their orbits reached Perry center. Now, alternatively, the author says jesting. Another possibility you see the dense galactic nucleus of the Milky way hosts a population of around 10 million stars on very tidy elongated orbits within a few light years of Sagittarius a star.
Now this stellar population is made up mostly of red giants with a significant smattering of massive super giants Wolf Ray stars, as well as a hundred or so Obi blue star. And all these stars shared masters Stella wins. And when they screen close to Sagittarius a star at the very center of their orbits, this shredded mass might will ever created under the supermassive black hole.
Again, triggering the observed, flaring up. This is [00:17:00] space-time still the calm, sir, Richard Branson and undertakes a successful suborbital test flight at both the VSS, unity and a special investigation by the Russian space agency at Al's cosmos suggest the ongoing air leaks about this Vista module on the international space station were most likely caused by either metal fatigue or micrometeorite impact, or that are more store to car.
On space time.
Virgin galactic founder, Richard Branson has undertaken a successful suborbital ballistic test flight. I bought the companies via says unity, rocket. Unity was dropped launched from its jet powered twin fuselage white, not to mothership Eve at an altitude of 43,000 feet above the New Mexico desert. We have L minus four checks and [00:18:00] work now.
So we just passed the four minute mark. This point, the pilots are. Spaceship is in its launch configuration. After going through the various L minus 10 checks, just confirming all settings are back in their place and go for launch. And this is also the point when spaceship unity will isolate her air supply from Eve and prime, the rocket motor by opening the backup oxidizer valve.
And once these actions are complete, the pilots are going to seek clearance for release. CC net shorthand for our mission control center. We have two MCC supporting today. Our primary horizon is located here at spaceport America, and they're being supported by the Oculus mission control center at our manufacturing base in Mojave, California.
These teams consisted of experts across various departments and disciplines within the company. And they're verifying checks with the crew today, every step of the way. All right. And I've just heard from. See that are Al minus four, checks are complete. We are roughly three minutes out from release. At this point, it's getting really exciting and we have just received clearance for release on time for mission control centers.
So we are two minutes [00:19:00] and 30 seconds out now. And once we get to the 32nd point, spaceship, unity is going to arm the launch pylon. And then once we get to that designated point, the mothership pilots are actually the ones that engage the release setting unity free. So we have actions for both the mothership pilots and the spaceship pilots.
So they're in coordination and all agree. The spaceship pilots are also going to push the stick all the way forward to prepare for release and things happen pretty quickly after the release. So the pilots are gonna light the rocket motor, and they're going to accelerate in level flight until they reach Mach one.
At which point, they'll start what we call the gamma turn, where we turn directly up and had to space one minute to release. Now it's getting real 30 seconds. The spaceship, unity pilots are arming the launch pylon. Now we are armed for release 20 seconds, 10 seconds, five. Two. One release release, release, clean release, then ignited at single hybrid rocket engine and quickly accelerated to overmatch three.
As it flew towards the blackness of space ignition. [00:20:00] Good rocket motor burn there's Mach one trimming. Now trim complete unity is pointed directly up and heading to space. Things are looking great when you're 25 seconds into the burn now approach. Two 30 seconds, mark too. Everything's looking really good and stable.
50 seconds approaching Mach three there's Mach three and 60 seconds. And that is a folder ration burn folks. We are headed to space and the passengers in the back have been cleared to unstrap. Our predicted Apogee is 279,000 feet. And. The pilots are now unlocking the feather. And as soon as they do that, it's going to initiate a backflip for spaceship, unity.
This is normal. We want those windows pointed down towards the earth to maximize that incredible view. So feather is coming up now and the pilots are also enabling the RCS or reaction control system, which is what they'll use to control the attitude of the vehicle while we're outside the atmosphere.
All right. Feather is all. We are at about 250,000 feet now in climbing Apogee and enjoying a few [00:21:00] minutes of microgravity. Unity began its fall back to earth, eventually gliding to a landing on the same runway to take an off from around 60 minutes earlier, reach Apogee 282,000 feet. The culmination of.
More than a half a century since the world rejoiced in and was transformed by humans, leaving planet earth, sir, Richard Branson fulfills his long-held dream of experiencing space with his crew. So we are the re-entry portion of our flight now, and the mission specialists are heading back to their seats.
Our training team has worked really hard on this portion of the flight to make it very natural and intuitive for passengers. Now, when we talk about space travel, a lot of people know and expect the boost portion of the flight to be loud and thrilling. But what's interesting is re-entry is also very similar as supersonic air is flowing over the vehicle and the feathered configuration shockwaves for them on top of the cabin, which are audible to those inside.
And for those of you onsite watching on the ground, you should be able to hear a double Sonic boom as spaceship unity. [00:22:00] Once again, breaks the sound barrier. All right, folks. Subsonic just under 75,000 feet in altitude and the pilots are lowering the feather. Now, now, as the feather comes down, the nose of spaceship is going to drop.
This is normal and expected. Once that feathers down in launch, the pilots will begin a gentle pull up to a level attitude, and I'm hearing the feather is down and locked now. So at this point, spaceship, unity is a glider. So it's all about balancing her potential and kinetic energy. So if the pilots.
Sturdy point the nose down, and if they want to go slower, they bring the nose up.
oh, beautiful. Congratulations to everybody for creating such a beautiful, beautiful place.
[00:23:00] so we are at 22,000 feet now and descending, and as I mentioned earlier, unity is a glider at this point. I'm so the pilots right now are discussing their energy management plan. And pretty shortly here, there'll be meeting up with our chase air. The pilots are coordinating with chase now and discussing their energy management plan.
They're at about 9,500 feet in altitude. And the runaway out here at spaceport America is around 4,600 feet in altitude. All right. We have three landing gear down and locked. Now the pilots are going to be landing on runway three for today. So that's coming from the south and towards the north. For those of you onsite watching and for the.
Tuning in those numbers represent the first two numbers of the magnetic heading of the runway. So for example, three, four is 340 degrees on your compass. We are just about a thousand feet above the field now and on final 500 feet above the runway, 300 feet over the threshold main gear touchdown. And we're going to hold it just like this for a minute before [00:24:00] bringing the nose down and the noses coming down.
Nose gear, touchdown and braking, and there is it's full stop.
A perfect landing at Virgin galactic has just broken through the commercial space tourism barrier, and there is no turning back. We have just witnessed the second human space flight from the state of New Mexico and our first space flight with four mission specialists onboard from our operational Homebase space for America.
Beautiful day of flight. What a moment, although heavily pushed in some media circles as a space flight emission. Once again, demonstrated at the existing spaceship. Two design appears unable to actually reach space instead of achieving an average of 86 kilometers, 282,480 feet. Now that's well short of the 100 kilometer or 328,000 feet internationally recognized status space known as the common line.
Although it does surpass the lower American definition of 80 [00:25:00] kilometers or 262,000 feet. The mission was the 22nd test flight for Virgin and their spaceship to rocket plane. Meanwhile, blue origin boss. Jeff Bezos is gearing up for his own suborbital space flight tomorrow, a launch designed to celebrate the dead or the Apollo 11 moon.
Virgin Galactic's in direct competition with blue origin and its new Shepard rocket in the suborbital space tourism market. With new Shepard consistently exceeding the Karman line during its test flights. Branson says Virgin galactic will undertake at least one more test flight before it begins flying paying passengers next year.
So far more than 600 people have purchased tickets to ride spaceship to each paying around 250,000 us dollars for the privilege. This space time still, the calm metal fatigue or micro media impacts now consider the most likely cause for the ongoing leak aboard the international space station and later in the science report and new species of a Guana [00:26:00] dumb like hadrosaur dinosaur discovered in Spain, all that and more stored.
An investigation by the Russian federal space. Ed Xeros cosmos has concluded that the ongoing A-League the module on the international space station, or most likely caused either by metal, fatigue, or micro meteoroid impact the Russians Vista. Modular's been venting atmosphere into space since 2019.
Customer notes founded eventually sealed a five centimeter jagged tear in the module back in October last year. But this visitor is still leaking air from behind and assembly compartment in the module. While the leak isn't serious, it has forced Roscosmos to send additional air supplies about cargo ships [00:27:00] bound for the opening out.
Moscow now plans to have cosmonauts examined as wisdom modules, assembly compartment, exterior howl during an upcoming space walk in order to determine if micro meteoroid impacts could be responsible for the lakes. If there's no exterior sign of micro meteoroid damage at the side of the lake, then the possibility of metal fatigue and the 30 year old module will need to be considered.
Los cosmos doesn't consider it to be a serious problem as they plan to leave the international space station in 2024, anyway, taking several modules with them when they go, some of which such as Vesta could be discarded, the rest will be used for the basis of a new Russian space station. While Russia is about to launch its new.
Now come multi-purpose science, the Barchie module for the space station. The long delayed Russia module will replace the peers docking port on the Russian section of the orbiting Alper. The 20 ton modularly cited to launch a board, a Russian proton rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in the central, Asian or public of [00:28:00] Kazakhstan this week.
Mind you, its arrival has been long delayed. It was originally slated to launch back in 2007. But ongoing technical problems have repeatedly happened. Construction in 2013, engineers found contamination in its fuel system that resulted in a long and costly cleanup process, which ended up exceeding the safe years by date for the components anyway, and that resulted in the need to build an entirely new replacement fuel system, which took even more time.
And there've been ongoing niggling technical problems with now cat ever since. Only time will tell if it really does launch this week. It's slated. This is space time
and Tom had to take a brief look at some of the other stories making, using science this week with a science report. And you study shows that around a third of people who developed mild to moderate [00:29:00] COVID-19 report lingering symptoms, seven months after infection a report in the journal of the annals of internal medicine found that 38% of people diagnosed with COVID-19 were still reporting residual symptoms, seven to nine months after their initial infection.
The symptoms include fatigue, loss of taste, or smell, shortness of breath and headache. The world health organization estimates more than 8 million people have been killed by the COVID-19 Corona virus. With more than 4.1 billion confirmed fatalities and some 190 million people infected since the deadly disease.
First spread out of war and China. Scientists say the growing problem of climate change is making heatwaves more likely a report in the journal nature is found that the chances of temperatures in north America specific Northwest coming close to 50 degrees, Celsius has increased by at least 150 fold since the end of the 19th century.
They ought to say the heatwave would have [00:30:00] been virtually impossible without the influence of human caused climate change. Last week, California's death valley recorded a sweltering top temperature of 53.7 degrees. Celsius. Mind you. Death valley was also the side of the hottest temperature ever recorded on earth, 56.7 degrees Celsius.
And that was back in 1913. Meanwhile Canada's highest ever recorded temperature of 49.6 degrees Celsius was recorded in Linton, British Columbia just two weeks ago. And the next day that same village was almost completely destroyed by out of control wildfires, which are now ravaging the Pacific west coast.
Paleontologist have identified a new species of a guanidine like hadrosaur dinosaur in Spain, a report in the journal. Plus one claims the six to eight meter long herbivore is based on a Jawbone fossil I nurse at the Marella sub-basin dig site near Portel in Eastern Spain. And newly identified dinosaur species would have roamed the earth [00:31:00] between 130 and 129 million years ago during the Cretaceous period and is similar to hadrosaur fossils found in Nigeria and China.
Satellite images are showing Beijing is turning the disputed south China sea into assess pill of feces with the mass discharge of raw human syringe, destroying the coral reefs images, which span a period of five years. Show how human waste and surge have accumulated producing huge algal blooms in a cluster of rapes in the Spratlys where hundreds of Chinese fishing trawlers have anchored pondering the rich fishing grounds around the race.
The images supplied by American geo special firms similarity show at least 236 ships in the atoll dumping raw sewage on the reefs. They're occupying Beijing has claimed ownership of almost the entire south China sea in violation of international law and is aggressively patrolling the region with people's liberation, army Naval vessels and Chinese coast guard ships, [00:32:00] intelligent design is the name creationists now use when they want to sound more scientific.
Tim minim from Australian skeptic says it's a term creationists were forced to adopt as the amount of scientific evidence supporting evolution became intelligent. Design is a term that's been used for about 20 years, 30 years by creation. And creationist people who believe that the Bible is literally true.
The earth was created 6,000 years ago. And that was like, was real animals treble. And that was a cave relation does not exist suddenly evolution between spaces and that the answer to everything is gone. And it was really in the early days of creationism, especially in America, it was being put forward as basically a religious thing.
We know what the answer is now. We've got to find that the evidence to answer. Parody then pilloried as scientific as a guide. So what happened is that they then sort of changed the name and becomes intelligent design, meaning that the design did not just happen. Natural selection would say in design, even use of the term [00:33:00] design instead of misleading, because there was a plan behind it.
There was a force behind it designing the way the earth works, designing the animals and all that sort of stuff. And his is creationism by another nine, pretending to be scientific, but still fit the following. The same intelligence is on and they're out there making America way. Most of the stuff comes from.
The many admin assistants they acquired from there from the addition of half a Coke to skeptics and explain what intelligence is on either side that many well-intended people reject, not the actual theory, but assuming that's true, a man by which they mean creationism, there was a religious fanatic who just believes that evolution doesn't happen.
As I said that at least people don't understand that intelligent design is not an argument from ignorance inference to the best explanation based on positive evidence. Well, it's not intelligent. Design is about as scientific, as I said, it's about a study of ghosts and things because primarily that, um, they have an answer.
The answer is that God did it. And then I try and find the evidence to suit. So rather than looking at the evidence, doing your research and saying these, they have some sort of outcome we can get from this and you already have the outcome and everything else has to match it.
[00:34:00] The case in America had done reviews ago, where somebody was trying to push books, anti-evolution books. And I think it was in Maine and they were saying, oh, this is intelligent design. This has nothing to do with creation. Then someone went through the book and pointed out that all you've done is through a word search and replace.
And we're able to have creationism, you put intelligent design and that would have weird sentences that just didn't like saints because of this substitution. And that was actually the evidence. They used to point out that the same thing, you just change the name to make it most. And uh, if no more science-y then creationism from Australian skeptics.
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