The Astronomy, Technology and Space Science News Podcast.
SpaceTime with Stuart Gary Series 24 Episode 34
*New images reveal magnetic structures near a supermassive black hole
The Event Horizon Telescope collaboration, which produced the first ever image of a black hole has now released a new image detailing the powerful magnetic fields generated by the supermassive black hole.
*A cosmic jellyfish in the distant universe
Astronomers have discovered a spectacular cloud of plasma in a distant cluster of galaxies being ignited by passing shockwaves.
*New results challenge the Standard Model of particle physics
Scientists at CERN have found some intriguing results that potentially can’t be explained by science’s current understanding of the laws of physics.
*Rocket Lab launches revolutionary new Australian satellite
Rocket Lab has successfully launched its 19th Electron mission which included the deployment of its 100th satellite payload.
*The Science Report
The Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine is ineffective against the South African strain of COVID-19.
Overuse of computers and smartphones linked to behavioural problems in kids by the age of five.
Finnish authorities link a major cyber-attack to a Chinese government hacker group.
A regular afternoon nap linked to improved mental agility.
Skeptic's guide to getting the COVID jab.
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SpaceTime with Stuart Gary Series 24 Episode 34
[00:00:00] This is SpaceTime series 24 episode 34, for broadcast on the 29th of March, 2021. Coming up on spacetime. Amazing new images, reveal magnetic structures near a supermassive black hole, a cosmic jellyfish in the distant universe and stunning your results challenge. The standard model of particle physics. Oh, well that and more coming up on spacetime.
Welcome to spacetime with Stuart, Gary.
The event, horizon telescope collaboration, which produced the first ever image of a black hole as narrow leased the new image detailing the powerful magnetic fields generated by the [00:01:00] supermassive black hole. This new view examines the supermassive black hole at the center of messier 87 through polarized light.
It's the first time astronomy has been able to measure polarization, a signature of magnetic fields. It's close to the edge of a black hole. The observations, Akido explaining how the messier 87 galaxy located some 55 million light-years away is able to launch such energetic jets from its core. In fact, this is the next crucial piece of evidence needed to understand how magnetic fields behave around black holes and how activity in this very compact region of space, these powerful jets that extend far beyond the galaxy.
Back on April the 10th, 2019, the world was astonished when scientists released the first-ever direct image of a black hole, revealing a bright ring-like structure with a central dark region, the black hole shadow. Now, since then the event horizon [00:02:00] telescope collaboration has been delving deeper into the data on that supermassive object at the heart of mad seven, originally collected back in 2017.
And they've discovered that a significant fraction of the light around the mad seven black hole is polarized. And that's important because the polarization of light carries information that allows astronomers to better understand the physics behind the image. Light becomes polarized when it goes through certain filters, like the lenses of polarized sunglasses, or when it's admitted in a hot region of space where magnetic fields are present.
In the same way that polarized sunglasses hope you see better by reducing reflections and the glare from bright surfaces. Astronomers can sharpen their view of the region around the black hole by looking at how the light originating from it is being polarized. Specifically, polarization allows us John hummus to map the magnetic field lines, present the, the inner edge of the black hole, right near that boundary between the [00:03:00] accretion disk and the black hole itself.
And these new polarized images are key to understanding how the magnetic field allows the black hole to consume matter and generate these powerful jets, the bright jets of energy and matter that emerged from core, extend out at least 5,000 light years from its center. Uh, one of the galaxies most mysterious and energetic features.
Works like this. Most of the material I enclose to the inner edge of a black hole is a creation. Disc will eventually pass a point of no return called the event horizon. And once it passes beyond that event, horizon, the material falls forever into the black hole singularity. Now, no one can tell you exactly what a singularity is.
It's best to find. There's a point of infinite density and zero volume where science is understanding of the laws of physics falls apart. However, some of the surrounding particles on the accretion disk managed to escape moments before reaching the vet horizon. And it's those particles which [00:04:00] are blown into space and form the jets, astronomers have relied on a range of different models of how matter behaves near a black hole to try and better understand this process.
But to be honest, they really don't know exactly how it jets larger than the galaxy are launched from its central region, which is comparable in size to our solar system. Know exactly how metaphors into the black hole. But with this new event, horizon telescope image of the black hole and it shadow in polarized light.
Astronomers have managed to peer into the region, just outside the black hole with this interplay between matter flowing beyond the event, horizon and matter being ejected out is happening. The observations are providing new information about the structure of the magnetic fields, just outside the black hole.
And the team found that theoretical models featuring highly magnetized plasma can best explain what they're seeing at the event. Horizon. The observations that suggesting that the magnetic fields of the black holes [00:05:00] edge are strong enough to push back on the hot gas, helping it to resist the pull of gravity.
And so only guests that slips through this magnetic field can spiral inwards to the event horizon. This space-time still the cam cosmic jellyfish in the distant universe and your results challenging the standard model of particle physics, all that, and more store to come on. Space time.
Astronomers have discovered a spectacular cloud of plasma being ignited by passing shock waves in a distinct cluster of galaxies. The findings reported in the astrophysical journal were captured by scientists using the merchants in widefield array, radio telescope in Outback, Western [00:06:00] Australia. One of the study's authors professor, Melanie Johnston hollered from the Curtin university node of the international center for radio astronomy research says the massive parts of my cloud, which basis striking resemblance to a giant cosmic jellyfish was detected in a distant galaxy castor nearness.
Abel 28 77. The authors observed the Costa for 12 hours at five radio frequencies between 87.5 and 215.5 megahertz. As they studied the feature, a ghostly jellyfish like structure began to emerge at lower and lower frequencies. It strangely enough, when they look back at higher frequencies emission, all but disappears, the author's best explanation for the phenomenon is that some, 2 billion years ago, a handful of supermassive black holes from multiple galaxies in the cluster, spewed out powerful jets of plasma, similar to the ones we were talking about in our previous story.
Now over the eons, this plasma [00:07:00] gradually faded went quiet late dormant. Then quiet. Recently, the plasma from these events began mixing and at the same time, gentle shock waves pass through the system. Briefly reigniting the plasma, lighting up the jellyfish and its tentacles. Now as seen from earth, the cosmic jellyfish is enormous covering an area of the sky, a third that I am out of the moon, but it's really cool.
Any visible using the unique capabilities of the emergency widefield array. This array is one of the precursors for the multi-billion dollar square kilometer array project, which will build the world's largest radio, your telescope, and which will have thousands of times more sensitivity with much higher resolution.
Johnston Khalid says discoveries like the cosmic jellyfish and at what's still to come once the square kilometer array becomes operational. So I have about 28, 77 itself is not a very interesting galaxy cluster, which is the grouping of several hundred galaxies sitting in that gravitational potential.
Well, but it hosts in a [00:08:00] very strange object that we've just seen at low radio frequencies with the metros and YPO to Ray, just local splice jellyfish. Which is an enormous region of spice shines like a daily fish, which is a missing only at very low radio frequencies and can only be picked up by, um, telescopes like the MWI.
And we've never seen anything which has the characteristics of this spice jellyfish before. So. The particular part that's interesting for us is radio astronomy is that it's only visible below 200 megahertz. So very, very low radio frequency and the, we can't see it at all. And the emission drops off really, really fast as a function of frequency, which tells us something about the electrons that are causing that radio emission.
And it's not anything that we've seen before. So it's kind of cool.
Yeah, pretty much. So it's a bunch of electronics that have been very gently accelerate or re accelerate the fitting in the edges of the galaxy cluster. So what we think [00:09:00] happened is that about 2 billion years ago, there was a couple of AGS, which hosted supermassive black holes that leaked out whole bunch of electrons.
Into the intercluster medium and then cost of wide processes that are not as violent as the ones we typically see when we've got two galaxy clusters merging have caused those electrons to reaccelerate, and then they light up in the radio, but they don't light up very much. So, in fact, they're so, as I said, we don't see them.
Except a very, very low radio frequency is because they're unable to producing very low energy radio partials. So it's really interesting. It's a, it's a thing that we've never seen before didn't really expect. And yeah, it looks like jellyfish and spice. Super cool. That's a telling us about that part of space, poly Phoenix.
So we have. These idea of electrons that leak out of supermassive black holes. They emit radio waves until they run out of energy. And then I suppose it's something we'll go through and provide [00:10:00] them with some more energy. So you the turbulence and the galaxy cluster or shockwave or something like this, and they light up again and produce more radio emission.
Now we see, they use quite a lot and we see them usually from one particular agent. So we call it the Phoenix rising from the dead kind of thing. This one's interesting because it's more than one active galactic nuclei with the supermassive black hole, but it's produced the electronic population. It's over the entire volume of the galaxy cluster.
So like electronics out for a long time. And yet the processes that are causing them to light back up. Are very, very low energy gentle processes in the galaxy cluster. So what it tells us is that this type of source is probably more prevalent in the universe and we've just not seen them before. And it's only really the advent of these fantastic lower frequency radio telescopes that we've got, like the sort of allowed us to check this type of thing.
Oh, absolutely. Well, hopefully. So we're doing again with the MWI. So we did a very successful. A few years ago with the one [00:11:00] doesn't match the wife motorized. So we've looked at about three quarters of the sky at low frequencies, but we've since gone ahead and upgraded the telescope. So we've doubled the number of antenna and increase the sensitivity factor of about 10.
And we reset Amy Scott, every person. So hopefully we'll be able to find more of these things. They should be out there looking in the depth of space, so to speak. That's professor Melanie Johnston, Holot from the Curtin university node of the international center for radio astronomy research. And this is space time still the com intriguing your results from certain challenging, the standard model of particle physics and rocket lab launches a revolutionary new Australian settler, or is it two satellites, all that or more still to come.
[00:12:00] scientists that CERN found some intriguing your results that potentially can't be explained by science's Karen understanding of the laws of physics. Researchers with the LHCB collaboration at the large Hadron Collider awards, largest Adam smasher have detected particles not behaving the way they should.
According to the standard model of particle physics. The basic foundation for science is understanding of the universe. The standard model predicts that a type of subatomic particle known as a bottom or beauty quark, which measured by the LHCB experiment should decay into either mule ones or electrons in roughly equal amounts.
However, then your results suggests this isn't happening and that therefore could be pointing to the existence of new particles or directions not explained by the standard model. The standard model is the current best theory of particle physics, describing all the known fundamental particles that make up the universe and the forces they [00:13:00] interact with.
However it's by no means complete. The standard model can explain some of the deepest mysteries in modern physics things like what dark matter is, what dark energy is and why there's an imbalance between matter. And anti-matter in the universe after all equal amounts of matter. And antimatter were made when the universe formed 13.8 billion years ago and matter, and antimatter and NYLI, when they come into contact with each other.
Yeah, that clearly didn't happen because we're here and we're in a universe made primarily of matter, not anti matter. So there's a lot of questions to answer, to try and help explain some of these mysteries scientists have been searching for particles acting in ways that are different from what's predicted by the standard model.
And that's exactly what they may have found. One of the study's authors, Dr. Patel from Imperial college London says he started shaking when he first looked at the results. Now, well, it's still far too early to determine if it really does represent a deviation [00:14:00] from the standard model. The potential implications are stunning.
The results were produced by the LHCB experiment. One of four huge particle detectors on the large Hadron Collider, a giant 27 kilometer long underground ring located near Geneva on the frankness with sporter. Scientists accelerate subatomic particles at 99.999%. The speed of light in opposite directions along the ring.
These now subliminal particle packets collide. When they reach one of the four detectors. These collisions produce the sort of environment, temperatures and pressures that existed in the first milliseconds. After the big bang in the process, generating a burst of new particles, which physicists then record and study in order to better understand the basic building blocks of nature.
And what the LHC B team have found is that their measurements questioned the laws of physics that treat electrons and their heavier counterparts identically, except for small [00:15:00] differences due to their different masses. You see, according to the standard model, neurons and electrons interact with all the forces of nature in the same way.
So beauty quacks created at the LHC B should decane to me once, just as often as they do into electrons. But the new measurement suggest that a case are happening at different rates and that intern could suggest never before seen particles tipping the scales away from Yuan's. This new result, therefore offers tantalizing hints of the presence of a new father metal particle or force that interacts differently with the different types of particles.
And it doesn't end there because this new data simply represents the most significant finding in a whole series of LHCB results over the past decade, that all seem to be lining up exactly the same way and it's that, which all seems to be pointing to a common explanation and because the results aren't changing, it means their uncertainties are shrinking and that's increasing science's ability to see [00:16:00] possible differences with a standard model.
In particle physics, the gold standard for discoveries, five Sigma or five standard deviations. Now in practical terms, what that means is a one in 3.5 million chance of the results you have being simply a fluke one in 3.5 million. This result isn't quite that good. It's three deviations, but that's still a one in a thousand chance that these measurements are simply a statistical coincidence.
One in a thousand. So by particle physics standards, it's still far too soon to make any firm conclusions as to whether or not there could be something wrong with sciences, Karen understanding of particle physics. It's now up to the LHCB collaboration to further verify their results by collating and analyzing more data to see if the evidence for some new phenomemon remains or whether it disappears as more and more results.
Come in. And the LHCB experiments expected to start collecting new data next year, following an [00:17:00] upgrade to the detector. This space-time still the comm rocket lab launches a revolutionary new Australian satellite, or is it two satellites? And later in the science report of the Oxford AstraZeneca vaccine found to be ineffective against the South African strain of COVID-19 or that a more store to calm.
lab has successfully launched its 19th electron mission, uh, board, which was its 100th satellite payload. The flight included the revolutionary M two experimental satellite built by the university of new South Wales in collaboration with the Royal Australian air force. It's testing, emerging technologies in earth, observation, maritime [00:18:00] surveillance, and satellite communication capabilities.
Using advanced in-orbit artificial intelligence on a platform that's reconfigurable throughout the mission. The data being captured by him too. Can inform maritime surveillance, weather observations, and low orbit, satellite traffic space, situational awareness. M two can also be split into two independent spacecraft, which can then fly in formation to enhance mission flexibility.
Also aboard the 19th electron mission with, to internet of things. Then as satellites for the Australian commercial operator fleet space, a technology demonstrator for the U S army space and missile defense command, a weather monitoring cube set for care weather technologies and an earth observation, satellite for black sky global.
The mission named they go up so fast, took off from rocket labs, Mahalia peninsula launch complex, one on new Zealand's North Island, East coast screen, and enabled for flight. At this time, I can confirm LDS go for long. Is there [00:19:00] an internal power ox load is complete. System is research relation stage one and stage two are press for flight.
What a deluge is activated ten nine eight seven six five four three.
you really do go up so fast with a beautiful lift off of electron from the pad at launch complex one we're now T plus 40 seconds. And to the mission and approaching max queue or maximum aerodynamic pressure at the one minute nine, Mark max queue is the moment during launch. When electronic experience is the highest amount of mechanical stress from the dynamic pressure, which is a function of its velocity and altitude, you could pass maximum dynamic pressure.
Stitch one guidance is nominal. IOS Chatham station we're quickly approaching the next set of milestones in this mission for your staff will be [00:20:00] main engine cutoff of the nine Rutherford engines on electrons. First stage. This is when the engines throttled down before the vehicle separates into sections or what we call stages.
Following that the soul vacuum optimized, rather for the engine on that second stage, we'll fire up to continue the journey to load stage separation successful stage technician confirmed. We have had a successful Mico. First and second stage separation and ignition of the Rutherford engine on electrons.
Second stage coming up in a few seconds. Electrons fearing will separate. The fairing is the casing at the top of the rocket that protects the satellites as they travel through this atmosphere. Very shut. Isn't succeeded.
Hearing his cleanly separated and pulling away from electron, which is continuing to get clean. Current speed of just under 10,000 kilometers per hour, and an altitude of about 165 kilometers. And we are now at about four minutes into the mission. Stage two propulsion remains nominal voltage, better just touch [00:21:00] nominal, approaching hotspot.
And the next few moments we'll be coming up to the battery. Hot swap a maneuver. That's very specific to the electron rocket. As the only launch vehicle flying with battery powered electric pumps, feeding our engines. When the first set of batteries are depleted during launch, we switched to a fresh one to power the engine for the rest of the mission.
That's right. Jettison confirmed
confirmation that the battery hot swap was performed successfully on electron and propulsion continues to look good for the rocket second stage, rather for the engine. We're just a few minutes away from orbital insertion and kick stage separation on this mission. Current altitude is 280 kilometers speed, 4.9.
Kilometers per second. The electron rockets kicked stage deployed five of the satellites into individual 550 kilometer high orbits before reigniting its Curry engine. And then lowering its orbit by a hundred kilometers to deploy the final payload, the kick stage, then reconfigured itself into rocket labs.
New first on spacecraft, which is [00:22:00] equipped with new power management, thermal control and attitude control subsystems. It'll be utilized for NASA capstone mission to the moon later this year. The so-called photon path stone mission is also a test testing, new on orbit, deep space, radio capabilities, and upgraded reaction control system for space maneuverability and both sun sensors and star trackers for situational awareness and navigation.
And Tom had to take a brief look at some of the other stories making using this week with a science report as Australia and produced Oxford AstraZeneca vaccines begin widespread distribution comes news from a long anticipated United States trial that the vaccine is 79% effective at preventing symptomatic cases of COVID-19 including in older adults.
The FDA study involving [00:23:00] 30,000 participants is consistent with British trial results. It shows no severe illnesses or hospitalizations among vaccinated volunteers, including no increased risks of rare blood clots. Like those identified in Europe, a scare that led to numerous countries briefly suspending vaccinations earlier this month.
But there are common side effects, including headache, muscle pain, chills, fever, tiredness, and feeling generally unwell, but all that usually only lasts a day or so, and then disappears. Like it never happened. And many people who've received the Pfizer vaccine instead of reported the same side effects, even though the two vaccines work differently.
Australia currently plans are producing more than half a million doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine every week. However the news, isn't all good. You test published in the new England journal of medicine show that the Oxford AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine is ineffective against the South African B one three 51 [00:24:00] variant of the virus.
Scientists tested the vaccine on around 2000 people. Roughly half of whom received the two dose jab or the rest were given a placebo. 19 out of the 750 vaccine recipients caught mild to moderate COVID-19 following the jabs while 23 out of the 717 placebo recipients caught it suggesting an efficacy of just 21.9%, but not all of those people had the South African variant.
And when the two groups of patients were analyzed, the loan, the vaccines efficacy was even lower. Just 10.4%. AstraZeneca was shortly begin trials on a new next generation vaccine that should work against all current SARS. COVID two variants, including the South African strain, which could be available before the end of the year.
So I guess we'll all be going back for a booster next year. Meanwhile scientists that Israel's been going university have found the Pfizer vaccine to be moderately less effective [00:25:00] against the South African variant. Although it's still successful against both the British strain and the original SARS cov two Chinese will hand strain.
Their findings are reported in the journal cell host and microbe. Over 2.8 million people have now died from the COVID 19 Corona virus with another 151 million infected since the deadly disease first emerged from the war hand Realogy lab in China and spread around the world. And you study warns against letting little kids spend too much time on computers and smartphones.
A report in the British medical journal claims over use of mobile phones, tablets, and game consoles at an early age is linked to our higher risk of behavioral problems. By the age of five, these include being hyperactive, having a short attention span, having low concentration levels and experiencing friendship problems.
The data is based on a study from Finland, which suggests that 95% of children [00:26:00] exceeded the one hour recommended daily device use. Meanwhile finished authorities have traced a cyber attack against the country's parliament last year to a Chinese government hacker group. Last December, the Finnish parliament announced that it had been hat fill-ins issue.
Ups security service worked with us security from FireEye to track down and identify the source of the hack. Eventually Tracy, the China's apt 31 hacking group. According to fire I a P T 31 focuses on obtaining information that can provide the Chinese government and state-owned enterprises with political, economic, and military advantages.
Well, if you're looking for an excuse quick afternoon, siesta, you'll be interested in a new study, which has found that taking a regular afternoon nap, maybe linked to improve mental agility. Scientists examined 2,214 people, 1,534 of her [00:27:00] enjoyed a regular afternoon snooze. Their findings reported in the journal.
General psychiatry suggests that equate quick in the afternoon was associated with better locational awareness, verbal fluency and working memory. Well, that this type of study can show that nappy actually caused the differences in mental performance. The authors say sleep may hold water of inflammation in the body, which could help explain the brain boost for those who she used to dose.
And you study is found. People are becoming more hesitant about getting the COVID-19 vaccine. The findings are based on a survey by the Australian national university, which suggests a significant and substantial increase in vaccine hesitancy. Over the past six months, the people asked about their feelings on getting the vaccine are becoming less willing increasing by 31.9% between August, 2020 and January, 2021.
Tim Menem from Australian skeptic, says the study found females, [00:28:00] indigenous Australians, those who speak a language other than English at home. And those who have not completed year 12, have all become less willing to get the vaccine compared to the rest of the Australian population. Various surveys have been done obviously around the world, but there's various survey has been done in Australia to indicate that with a lot of people out there who say they won't probably, or definitely will not take the vaccination.
Now this one particular survey said 20%. They are unlikely to other surveys. The department of health said is 27% are unsure. So you're talking about a fair percentage of the population, but I did my numbers on the back of an envelope. So you can correct me if I'm wrong. But the same survey said about 64, 65, 70% of people say they will definitely get it.
And we assume that a lot of the people who are hesitant. Uh, probably primarily hits it. It because of the speed at which this vaccine is being produced and is being used around the world, especially when politicians say that, Oh, vaccine production only takes five to 10 years. This one has been done in one year and you think, well, hang on why that's a lot of [00:29:00] people and that's what makes them hesitant.
But once they see what's happening in the world at once, they see how vaccines are working effective and apparently a lot of those same things for us, half of that, either. We'll say, yeah. Okay. I'll get it because I'm just hesitant and telling me I'm not going to get it. So you add that to the people who are immunocompromised, who cannot take a vaccine because of the physical issues, allergies and things like that.
And that genuine thing that happens, you add it up and you're actually getting out, but not exempt. People that's 85, 90, 85 on a conservative sort of estimate. If you like, and then you get the people who are the lazy parents contingency, who are the ones who say, Oh, I'm doing something that I, you know, I've got to get my fingernail Polish.
And if everyone else gets it, that's okay. We're safe. Now some of those will turn into getting vaccination, especially thanks to no jab, no pain, no jab, no play legislation. So those people are getting less lazy today. They moving across the survey, say it about. Um, 9%, whatever people are anti-vax. So they're absolutely sign.
We will not vaccinate. I think this is part of the scare tactics that we're saying at the moment, which is [00:30:00] pretty strong. And normally the anti-vax numbers are therefore deprived. So if you take the anti-vax people and throw in a percent or two for the lazy parent people you're down to about 95% of people will get the vaccination.
95% is herd immunity. That allows for the fact that there are people out there who can't get a vaccination needs to be protected by the rest of us being vaccinated. So. 90% in Australia. I mean, most places it's above 90%, I think Victoria rates 95. I don't know if it's still there. It goes up and down, depending on, you know, but at the central to the worst case of people where they're sort of hippie country like Byron Bay and BNB, Nimbin, those sort of areas where it's 50%, 60%.
And that's where you're getting these diseases, returning hooping, cough, and things like that. To me. Yeah, this is scary survey it's I'm saying 20%, but me being the eternal optimist, I pull back and look at that. What does that 20% mean? And most of those are hesitant, not anti, I probably won't get it, but it also means you probably will eventually right?
Once the whole hysteria settled down because of the effectiveness of being a lot of the concern has been regarding the [00:31:00] speed at which these vaccines have been produced. But what people need to understand is the vaccine framework. The, the scaffolding upon which these vaccines are based has been around for quite a while now.
And all they're really doing is changing a few of the chemical compounds involved in the final stages. These in order to make the protein spikes that they're trying to make. Or to encourage the human body to make, depending on which version of the vaccine you're getting. So although it is happening really quickly, it's, it's all based on a very firm foundation.
That's right. I mean, there have been various to run the viruses of various sorts around for awhile. I mean, I can find it just seeing the cat against the shape of the virus rather than its nature. And add to that, get a cramp patch of that, the number of organizations and the effort being put in, which is above and beyond, what's been done before.
And yet, so the one year becomes an understandable, the question then comes down to how diligent had the trials done in that short period of time. Intimate question will. So with the Oxford AstraZeneca vaccine, there have been some compromises in [00:32:00] the trials associated with that, but, uh, hopefully they've now been sorted out with the latest trials that have just come out that's right.
I mean, so yeah, trials, trials part and powerful as well. The number of years it takes to develop a vaccine. But as you say, if they're building on top of past research, some of that research time can be dismissed and you really down to the trial stage when the trials. Tom, you can't shorten really, unless you're doing a hell of a lot of them very quickly.
Um, but I mean, it's still, yeah. The fact that politicians say only take five, 10 years, this one's only taking one half scared, a lot of people. And that's a fact, but it's the fact that people will get over. I think from Australian skeptics.
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