SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 79
*Discovery of a White Dwarf so massive it might collapse
Astronomers have discovered the most massive white dwarf ever seen. The smouldering cinder, which formed when two smaller white dwarfs merged, is packing a mass greater than that of our Sun squeezed into an object about the size of our Moon.
*A new hypothesis to explain Mercury’s huge iron core
A new study claims that rather than being the result of a massive collision blasting away much of its mantle – Mercury’s proportionally massive core is simply the result of where the planet formed.
*Planet Earth’s hot new neighbour
Astronomers have discovered a new exoplanet in our part of the galactic neighbourhood.
*A final mission for the Cygnus 15 cargo ship
A Cygnus cargo ship has undocked from the International Space Station to launch a series of five satellites before ending its mission.
*The Science Report
A new study shows people will need to vaccinate to at least 85% to achieve herd immunity.
Night-owls have an increasing risk of obesity.
Australia’s oddest and most critically endangered species of fungus.
China is continuing its preparations for war -- building over a hundred new nuclear missile silos.
Skeptic's guide to the Falcon Lake UFO incident.
For more SpaceTime and show links: https://linktr.ee/biteszHQ
SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 79 AI Transcript
[00:00:00] Stuart: [00:00:00] This is SpaceTime series 24 episode 79 for broadcast on the 10th of July, 2021. Coming up on SpaceTime, discovery of a white dwarf. So massive. It might collapse. A new hypothesis to explain Mercury's huge iron core and planet Earth's hot new neighbor. All that and more coming up on SpaceTime
VO Guy: [00:00:26] welcome to space time with Stuart Gary
Stuart: [00:00:45] astronomers have discovered the most massive white dwarf ever seen. The smoldering cinder, which formed when two smaller white dwarves merged together is now packing a mass greater than that of our son squeezed into an object, no [00:01:00] larger than the moon. Why dwarves are the collapsed because of sunlight stars, stars, shine by fusing hydrogen, into helium in their core.
When they run out of core hydrogen, they can tract eventually increasing core temperature and pressure to the point where they begin fusing core helium into carbon and oxygen. At the same time, a shell of hydrogen begins burning outside the core, and this causes the stars out of gaseous envelope to expand.
And as it's now further away from the contracted core, this outer envelope also cools down, turning the star into a red giant. Now, eventually the star will run out of core helium diffuse, and as it's not massive enough to fuse carbon and oxygen into heavier elements, the star dies. It's bloated out an envelope floats away as a spectacular cloud of gas and dust or the planetary Nebula while it's wide hot, still a core lies, [00:02:00] exposed as a white dwarf as super dense object, usually about the size of the earth, which will slowly cool over the air.
Astronomers think about 97% of all stars in the universe will eventually end their lives as white dwarves. This unusual new discovery catalog. The ZTF J 1901 plus 1458 was made by this Vicki transient facility at Caltech Palomar observatory. So how did this white Wolf gets her masters? Well, unlike our son, most stars exist in Marvel star systems.
And this new discovery provides an example of what could happen in a moddable star system. After the formation of a white dwarf, a pair of white tulips were in a binary system, spiraling around each other and eventually losing energy in the form of gravitational waves, which ultimately led to them getting closer and closer together until they eventually merged.
Now, usually when two white dwarves merge there's enough mass there to trigger [00:03:00] a Thermo nuclear, a type one, a supernova explosion. But if they're just below that threshold, which is around 1.4, four times the mass of our sun, then instead they'll simply combine to form a new white Wharf. That's heavier than either of the progenitor stars, but this process of merging boosts the magnetic field of the new star and speeds up its rotational rate compared to that of its progenitors.
Astronomers believed that this newly found a white two off, took this a latter route of evolution, its progenitors merged and produced a new white dwarf with about 1.3, five times. The mass of our sun, a report of the journal nature says this newly discovered white dwarf does have an extreme magnetic field, almost a billion times stronger than that of our son.
And it's spinning around on its axis at a frenzied pace of almost one revolution every seven minutes. Now by comparison, our son takes about 30 earth days to complete its revolution. The study's lead author. I Larry [00:04:00] from the California Institute of technology says, well, why two off wasn't quite massive enough to explode in a supernova.
It might be massive enough to evolve into a neutron star, which typically forms when status far more massive than the sun exploding core collapse. Supernovae. She admits it's highly speculative, but it is possible. He has a says it's so massive and dense in its core that electrons are being captured by protons in the nuclear, the form neutrons, because the pressure from the electrons pushes against the force of gravity.
Keeping the star intact. The core collapses. When a large enough number of electrons are removed. Now, if this neutron star formation, I passed this as is correct, it could mean that a significant number of other neutron stars out there could also be created through the same process. The new fat objects, close proximity to the earth, just 130 light years away had its young age just around a hundred million years or so indicate that similar objects may occur commonly in our [00:05:00] galaxy.
The thing is no one's been systematically able to explore short timescale, astronomical phenomenon of this kind on the sort of scale. And it's on there. Now, the authors analyze the spectrum of the star using the Keck observatory in Hawaii. They found signatures of a very powerful magnetic field. And that suggested that they had found something very special.
The strength of the magnetic field combined with a fast seven minute rotational speed of the object indicated that it was probably the result of two smaller white dwarves coalescing into a single object data from NASA swift space telescope, which observes in ultraviolet light. They'd help nail down the size and mass of the white dwarf.
With a diameter of just 4,300 kilometers. ZDF J 1901 plus 1458. Now secure is the title for the smallest known white dwarf in existence, edging out the previous record holders or a reach around 5,000 kilometers across. And as you'd expect, the authors are [00:06:00] now searching for more white dwarves like this one, so they can study the population as a whole.
The thing is there are so many questions to address such as what's the rate of why two of mergers in the galaxy. And is that enough to explain the number of type one, a supernova that has seen also how's the magnetic field generated in these powerful events and why is there such diversity in magnetic field strength among white dwarves finding a large population of white tool was born from mergers will help provide some of these answers.
This is space time. Still to come and you hypothesis to explain Mercury's you giant core and planet earth hot you neighbor all at a more still to come on. Space time.
[00:07:00] A new study claims that rather than being the result of a massive collision blasting away, much of its mantle planet Mercury's proportionately massive core could simply be the result of exactly where in the solar system the planet was formed for years, astronomers have speculated why the nearest planet to the sun has such a huge, giant core compared to its relatively small mantle.
The mercury has a metallic core that makes up about three quarters of its overall mass. By comparison, the cause of the earth and Venus only make up about a third of their mass. And as for the planet, Mars, it isn't even smaller core making up only about a quarter of its mass in the cases mercury hit and run collisions with other bodies blowing away.
Parts of Mercury's Rocky metal during its formation was long and sitted, the most likely reason the planet has been left with such a huge dense metallic. But a new study reported in the journal progress at earth and planetary science suggests that the sun's magnetism rather [00:08:00] than collisions is more likely to blame.
The findings are based on models showing that the density mass and I am content of a terrestrial or Rocky planets core is influenced by its distance from the sun's magnetic field. The study's lead author, professor William McDonogh here from the university of Maryland, says the solar systems for inner planets, mercury Venus earth, and Mars are each made up of slightly different proportions of rock and metal.
And he says there's a gradient in which the metal content of the core drops off as a planet gets further away from the sun. And the new model explains how this could happen by showing that the distribution of raw materials in the early forming solar system, 4.6 billion years ago was controlled by the sun's magnetic field McDonald.
He new models shows that during the early formation of the solar system, when the young nascent sun was still surrounded by swirling clouds of gas and dust, grains of iron were drawn towards the center by the sun's magnetic field. [00:09:00] So when planets began to form clumps out of this gas and dust planets, closer to the sun incorporated more of the iron.
And they cause than those which are further away. McDonald human colleagues found that the density and proportion of the eye and inner Rocky planets core correlates with the strength of the magnetic field around the sun during planetary formation. The new study suggests that magnetism make the fact that in the future, it attempts to describe the composition of Rocky planets, including those outside our solar system.
The composition of a planet's core is important for its potential to support life on earth. For instance, the modern iron cord creates a GA dynamo, which in turn creates a magnetosphere that protects the planet from cancer causing solar wind and cosmic rays. Using existing models of planetary formation, McDonogh here determined the speed at which gas in DAS was being pulled into the center of the solar system during its formation.
You then fact that in the magnetic through that would have been generated by the sun, [00:10:00] as it burst into being and calculated how the magnetic field would draw iron through the molecular gas and dust cloud. As the solar system began to call Dastan gas, there were not drawn into the early sun, began to clump together.
And the clumps closer to the sun would have been exposed to a stronger magnetic field and thus they would contain more iron than those further away from the sun. And then as the comps coalesced and cooled into spinning planets, gravitational forces cause differentiation driving the iron into their core.
When Madonna you incorporated this model into calculations for planetary formation, it revealed a gradient in metal content density that just happened to correspond with the quarter MES ratios for the planet. This is space time still. The calm planet earth is hot, new neighbor and the final mission of the Cygnus, 15 cargo ship, all that, and more still to come on.
[00:11:00] Astronomers have discovered a new exoplanet in our part of the galactic neighborhood, the newly found planet glazey 4 8, 6 B is a so called super earth larger than the earth, but smaller than the ice giants like Neptune and Uranus, it's opening around a special type M red Wolf star. And it's not far away just 26 light years.
So that does really make it one of our closest neighbors. Galactically speaking. Red dwarves are the most common types of stars. In fact, they're thought to make up around 70% of all the stars in the Milky way. Galaxy the exoplanet is orbiting extremely close to its host star taking just 36 hours to complete.
Each orbit are being so close, suggested it's tightly locked with one side constantly facing [00:12:00] the star. And the other side in perpetual darkness, scientists think the planet has a surface temperature of around 430 degrees Celsius. A report in the journal science claims glazey four at six B could be our best chance yet of statting a terrestrial Planetree atmosphere beyond the solar system.
But there's a huge problem with that. You see red dwarf stars and known for having a lot of stellar activity, things like Stella flares and coronal mass ejections events, which could easily destroy an opening planet's atmosphere and irradiate anything on its surface. Still it is a super earth and that's exciting because we don't have any super earth in our solar system like earth glazey 4 8, 6 SPI is a Rocky terrestrial world.
It really that's where the similarities end. Firstly, it's 30% bigger, enormous three times more massive than the earth. So gravity on this world is something like 70% stronger than on earth, super earth themselves. Aren't rare, but glazey 4, 8, 6 [00:13:00] B is special for two key reasons. Firstly, if it has retained an atmosphere despite being so close to its host star, then the intense hate would cause the atmosphere to expand hoping astronomers undertake atmospheric measurements.
And secondly, it's a transiting planet. So it crosses in front of the star as seen from earth and as a transiting planet, all easy 4, 8, 6 B will give scientists two unique opportunities to study any atmosphere. That's there. Firstly when the planet passes in front of the star and the fraction of Starlight shines through the atmospheric layer, that's a technique called transmission spectroscopy.
And then again, when Starlight illuminated the surface of the planet, as it orbits around behind the star technique, nervous emission spectroscopy, in both cases, scientists will use a spectrograph. That's a tool that splits light into its component. Wavelength, allowing scientists that code the chemical makeup of an atmosphere.
The findings were made using masses [00:14:00] tests, transiting, exoplanet survey, satellite together with ground-based telescopes in Spain, the United States and Chile. One of the studies authors, Dr. Ben montet from the university of new south Wales says glazey 4, 8, 6 speeds. The kind of planet astronomers have been dreaming about for decades.
And studying any atmosphere on this super earth will help us draw them as better understand how it's affected by its host star
Guest: [00:14:26] is one of the nearest transplant planets. We know it was discovered using data from the NASA technician, which is a search for transiting planets. So by transiting, I mean it passes between us and the center along the line of sight to the star on its orbit.
And so when we observed the star over and over. We see that the planet cast the shadow on the surface of the tower. So in this case, the planet has a very short orbital period about 36 hours. So every 36 hours, we see the sour appear to get slightly thinker. This is just the shadow of the planet going in front of the star.
And the star itself is not changing brightness, just our perception of it. And so when we [00:15:00] see this over and over that can tell us quite a bit about the planet. The period of the shadow events tells us about the year on the planet, how long it takes to go around it. And the depth of the depth, how deep is the shadow.
The transit event is tells us about the size of the planet. And so with that information, we can see that this planet is only a little bit bigger than the earth, about 30% larger. And then follow-up spectroscopic observations. So looking for the Doppler signal as the planet and the sour orbit each other, and the star moves towards and away from us and is blue shifted in red, shifted tells us about the map.
And so we can see that about two and a half times the mass of the earth. So those two pieces together, how we call it a super earth, meaning a Rocky planet, slightly bigger than New York. And because it's so close to the tower, it's very high. It has a temperature of something like 430. 700 Kelvin.
Stuart: [00:15:50] It's also relatively close and interesting opportunity to try and study the planet's atmosphere.
Assuming it's got an atmosphere, of course, being so close to a red dwarf and let's face it red. [00:16:00] Wolf's a very excitable. There might not be much. Absolutely. And
Guest: [00:16:03] that's one of the very big questions. Uh, the third is very different than the sun. Very strong magnetic fields, large flares, lots of magnetic activity that could destroy a planet's atmosphere.
Uh, we know, and are potentially a promising place to look for signs of life. Rocky planets are very common around, or they seem to be the most common type of planet around and are the most common type of star in the galaxy. There are about 70% of all the sours putting those two together. Most Rocky planets are around.
Unattractive place to look, but there's then the question, can planets retain their atmospheres or are they destroyed by, by the kinetic activity and high energy material falling off of the tower? That's the problem. Once you lose your planet's atmosphere, you're not getting. There's no real way to recover the fair.
And once it's gone, it's gone forever. So we really want to understand what the atmospheres of planets around endorse look like. This is one of the best [00:17:00] opportunities we have for that. It's not really an Earth-like atmosphere. So if it has one it's so hot, the plant is probably more like vena center, but this.
Planet, we have to potentially measure the atmosphere of a planet around. And so if this planet has an atmosphere, that's a really good sign for future, more temperate, planets around and worth that we discover. They will be the potential types of systems that we observe with James Webb and its successors in the search for the
Stuart: [00:17:27] difference between
Guest: [00:17:30] a super earth is a planet that has.
Still a Rocky surface and a thin atmosphere. I can have an atmosphere, but not a very thick one. It's one that you could potentially live on, or at least so something like Venus and earth and Mars in breaststroke where a mini Neptune would be something that has a very extended atmosphere, much like our gas and ice giant and our solar system.
It doesn't really have the surface where light penetrates to that. You could [00:18:00] imagine living and breathing. And so many Neptunes are smaller than Neptune, but with that extended atmosphere, super earth are the Rocky planets that are kind of scaled up versions of the earth. And we think the border is usually somewhere around one and a half times.
The radius of the earth, 1.5, 1.7. We're smaller than that. You're more likely to have. The Rocky surface and bigger than that, you probably have the
Stuart: [00:18:21] big atmosphere. Does one become the other as the, uh, still a wind from the host star blows. Oh,
Guest: [00:18:28] we don't really know that possibly happens sometimes that you could have this very big atmosphere that gets stripped away.
And then you're left with the core of what was the core of the Chinese. We think we see some planets that, especially as sounds by Kepler that are probably, that is the explanation, you know, very, very close to the star, probably had a larger atmosphere to begin with. We don't think that's always the case in our solar system.
Probably the giant planets formed first over [00:19:00] the first 10 million years or so of the Star's life. And then the inner planet, mercury through Mars formed a little later out of the remnants of a protoplanetary desk. Once a lot of the guests invested dissipated. And so we don't think that our own planet went through a stage of being like a mini Neptune that then got tidally photo of apparated away.
But for some planets, very close to the stars, we think that's definitely a possibility. We look at
Stuart: [00:19:23] our solar system, we don't see any super-Earths or mini Neptunes in it. Are we unusual?
Guest: [00:19:31] Yeah, we seem unusual. So it's important to remember that most of the planets, we know that the planetary systems, we know look very different than our own solar system.
The planets discovered by Kepler and tests, just because of the nature of the way they find planets. They're very preferentially biased toward short period planning. Most of the planets we talked about in the news have orbital periods. Then 50 to a hundred days, this planet is a day and a half.
Stuart: [00:19:55] Yeah.
These are the usual ones to find, but that's, that's why there's a bias there.
[00:20:00] Guest: [00:19:59] Exactly. That's exactly right. The shortest planet in our solar system, mercury has an orbital period of EDA day. And so in the theme of Kepler and test planet, that's quite a long period. So we're really probing a population that we don't have in our color system in terms of where they are relative to their star.
But also you're totally right. That these are systems that we don't have examples of in the solar system. Earth is the biggest Rocky planet. The next largest planet is Neptune. That seems weird. We, before Kepler, a lot of our models and information were conditioned on what we thought we knew about the solar system, and didn't really predict the plan.
It should be very common, but as we've looked with Kepler and tests, it seems like the mini earth super Neptune might be the most common type of planets in the universe. And so we don't have that. That makes us a little weird, but it also gives us it's really interesting because it gives us a chance to deeply study.
A class of planet that we don't have in our solar system. We're learning something very new. As we try to understand what these planets are, how they form, how they get to be the way they are. It's much easier [00:21:00] for us to understand an earth size planet or a Neptune planet, because we have beautiful data right here.
We can send it. We can't send approach to a super earth run mini NetSuite. And so there's a lot to learn from the Kepler data.
Stuart: [00:21:12] You read things like the nascent model or the grand tack about how our solar system formed. That all seems to make a lot of sense. Do we see anything in other stellar systems that would fit that sort of a mold or is again, I we're unique in that
Guest: [00:21:26] way.
Yeah. So it's hard to say specifically about things like the grand tack model, because that takes place over such. Short time period, and such a wide physical distance in our solar system. You're talking about things from, and moving from 10 AUM to a couple of you away from the tower. And so we're not as sensitive to that area as we'd like to be.
And the surveys that we're doing, we tend to be biased towards the short period things, but we do definitely see evidence for significant migration of planetary system. Are there a lot of planets discovered, especially by Kepler and test [00:22:00] hot Jupiters. Smaller planets in resonance with each other. So two planets still have periods of 10 and 20 days or 10 and 15 days.
So their orbital periods are very close to editors of each other. And so we think that's due to planets, migrating inward and catching each other gravitationally and then migrating together inward through drag and that the desk is there being farmed. And so those plus the hot Jupiters are evidence for really significant migration over the first tens of millions of years.
Planetary system in not an entirely dissimilar way to what's predicted by the Nissan.
Stuart: [00:22:37] You want to take this now, obviously you want to study the atmosphere as best you can. There are different ways of doing that.
Guest: [00:22:43] Yeah. So, so for our best bet in the near future is probably James Webb. It's one of the best targets to measure the atmosphere.
So there's two ways broadly speaking that we measure planet atmospheres, the first is. The planet as a transit directly in [00:23:00] front of it tower. And then we can see light go through the atmosphere of the planet, around the edges of it, and then infer what the composition of the atmosphere is. What we call the Terminator is where the Twilight is on the planet between the data side and the night side.
And then also half an orbit later for this planet, right before it hits a what we call secondary. When it goes behind the star, we can probe the data side of the planet. So what does it look like on its surface off of reflected light from the star just before it goes behind the star and get a call. And so this is the single best Rocky planet we know of to that second type of measurement called emission spectroscopy.
And so to understand the data side of this planet is the best chance we have with James Webb for a Rocky planet. And so I expect that this will be a very high priority target.
Stuart: [00:23:46] Jamie's Webb's launching in what? October? November at this day.
Guest: [00:23:49] Yeah. Current plan is late 2021. It will take a few months to get into it, or, but it's going to go to L to the earth sun, the ground point behind the earth and then has to unfold.
It's [00:24:00] mere and it'll be a calibration checks and commissioning. So I would expect science would start in maybe April
Stuart: [00:24:06] 20, 22. I, to Ben montet from the university of new south Wales. And this is time still the comm a final mission for the Cigna's 15 cargo ship. And later in the science report and you study shows we'll need to vaccinate at least 85% of the population in order to achieve herd immunity for COVID-19.
All that a more store to come on. Space, time.
uh, Cygnus cargo ship is undocked from the international space station to launch a series of five satellites before ending its mission. The sickness NG 15 is carrying more than four tons of trash destined to burn up [00:25:00] during atmospheric reinjury. However, prior to meeting its ultimate demise in the skies above the Southeast and Pacific ocean, the sickness will launch five small satellites using the Slingshot nano racks cube set.
Deployers. The sickness was launched back on February, the 20th of border Northrop Grumman, Antares rocket from masses wallop silent flight facility on the Virginia and mid Atlantic coast. It was carrying nearly four tons of scientific research equipment and supplies to the space station. The Cygnus docked with the orbiting, our post two days later, once all the supplies were unloaded, it was used to store trash and disused equipment no longer needed by the crew.
This space, time
and time out of take a brief look at some of the other stories making use in science this week with a science [00:26:00] report or forget what the politicians have been telling you. And you study shows we'll need to vaccinate at least 85% of the population in order to achieve herd immunity against COVID-19. The new modeling from James Cook university as implications for the Australian government's four step plan to transition from suppression of COVID-19 to a strategy of reopening and returning to normal life.
Scientists say the first hurdle, which is to vaccinate and achieve herd immunity will be more difficult to achieve with the Dota varied of COVID-19, as it's both more infectious and less amenable to vaccination. Researchers found the dot of variants reproduction number. That is the average number of people infected by one person carrying the virus is four for the Delta variant.
That means 85% of the population will need to be vaccinated. Using the current strategy effects in courage was targeted at the most infectious ages. Australia could achieve herd immunity by [00:27:00] vaccinating 75% of the population. However that may not be realistic because it would require yeah, a hundred percent vaccination uptake in the 20 to 60 year old age group, the world health organization, estimates over 8 million people have been killed by the COVID-19 Corona virus with over 4.1 million confirmed fatalities and more than 186 million people infected since the deadly disease for spread out a word, China.
And you study warns that night hours, especially those who are average, less than five hours. Sleep have an increasing risk of obesity scientists characterize the bedtime of midnight or later as late night and suggest that staying awake at night may suppress the secretion of melatonin, which is associated with an increased risk of obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers.
The study reported in the journal of the American medical association, also as bad news for nappers, which found that longer daytime siestas were also [00:28:00] associated with a higher risk of obesity of the author suggests that could be because the daytime that might occur more often due to late nights, scientists from the Victorian Royal Botanic gardens have discovered what is now the largest population of Australia's oddest and most critically endangered species of fungus.
More than a hundred fruiting bodies of the fungus learners. Teatree fingers. So-called because of their distinctive finger-like form at seemingly grips it's wouldn't substrate like a hand have been discovered on victorious French island, several kilometers from the Mornington peninsula, despite intensive surveys.
These exceptionally rare fungus have only ever been found at four locations on the mainland since they were first chanced upon by modern scientists back in the early 1990s. Fungi have been historically overlooked by many conservationists as despite their crucial role in ecosystems, especially when it comes to decomposition and nutrient recycling.
[00:29:00] China is continuing its preparations for war building over a hundred new nuclear Intercontinental ballistic missile silos. Commercial satellite images have uncovered 119 silos being built in the desert near the north Western city of Humana in Ganju province. The new missile silos appear to be similar designed to many of Beijing's existing nuclear missile facilities during a speech celebrating the Chinese communist party's 100th anniversary, Chinese president Georgine pink boasted that a great wall of steel was being built by the people's liberation army.
Well, Annette seems that one of Canada's best documented UFS stories may have been nothing more than a case of having a little bit too much to drink. Back on may the 19th, 1967, a man received serious burns after he claimed he had gotten too close to one of two glowing objects that it descended from the sky near Falcon lake in mammoth.
Tobar one of these glowing objects [00:30:00] landed close enough for the matter approach, but as it took off again, it's exhaust set the man's clothes, the blaze, leaving him with serious burns. You will fall just claim the hospital images show grid-like burn marks on the man's chest and a similar grid pattern appears to be burned into his t-shirt.
Two books have now been written on the Falcon lake encounter and in April, 2018, the Royal Canadian mint released a $20 silver coin depicting the alleged event as part of its Canada's unexplained phenomemon series. However, Tim minim from Australian skeptic says a careful review of all the available evidence, including the medical and police reports includes that while the man did indeed suffer burns, they appear to have been caused by a hot waffle line possibly after he fell over after consuming a large amount of alcohol.
Seems the man who was prospecting for silver or near the lake at the time may have invented the, your first story to keep other prospect is out of the air.
Jonathan: [00:30:59] I [00:31:00] mean, it's mostly, I mean, the deductions you think they're actually from the U S which they are. We, people tend to get taken away from people in the middle of the countryside when no one else is seeing them, they get taken away and brought back later on after being probed, et cetera.
Stuart: [00:31:12] Yeah. Yeah.
Jonathan: [00:31:13] Well, there was one case in the famous case in Canada, which is a fellow who was called Stephon metallic, which was how he was taken away. And he would hit scorch marks on his chest. And his stomach was, looked a bit like a waterline, that sort of pattern. And he claimed that he'd been taken away and probe in that alien crowd.
Throw it back, et cetera. There were reports by the Mounties and all sorts of things, but there's a Canadian researcher who has researched a lot of UFO thinks it's really worthwhile having a look at his site, which is called the iron skeptics.com. He's on a skeptical point of view rather than from a pro UFO.
I believe. And he's done quite a good report on it. It's actually a good example of an in private, in private investigator that makes it sound, will sound like a detective and amateur investigator going after a particular cases and things and spending quite considerable time and research looking at some [00:32:00] of these things as much as you can, when you were there to see what sort of stories you were lying on.
It's often just the person themselves. They'd probably be, and perhaps some other people that they might've reported the case to, but this. That's an interesting story of an abduction in Canada and even more interesting. Is this the banking? Sorry. Hello. Tell us a
Stuart: [00:32:16] little bit about the, the banking business of it.
How was it? What did it turn out through the fall on a waffle iron or something, or what
Guest: [00:32:23] Miami inconsistencies in his story
Jonathan: [00:32:25] about what happened to him when
Guest: [00:32:28] he was all sorts of
Jonathan: [00:32:29] different things that just don't make sense that he changed his story.
Stuart: [00:32:33] Many times
Jonathan: [00:32:39] you get caught up on the burns on his stomach, nothing extra. But then the question is, if this fellow said, give me a potato masher in a campfire and he can duplicate it,
but there's a waffle line or a potato. I mentioned knows
Stuart: [00:32:54] that if you're abducted by aliens, you're probed. Ainley, that's what it's all about.
Stuart: [00:33:08] you know, that's the excuse nurses here in medical wards all the time.
Jonathan: [00:33:12] Yeah. I was drunk and I fell over and the projection is that he probably could have done it to himself. Believe it or not.
Stuart: [00:33:21] From Australian skeptics.
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That's all one word and that's tumbler without the. You can also follow us through at Stuart Gary on Twitter at space-time with Stuart, Gary on Instagram, through us space-time YouTube channel [00:35:00] and on Facebook, just go to facebook.com forward slash space time with Stewart. And space-time is brought to you in collaboration with Australian sky and telescope magazine. Your window on the universe.
You've been listening to space-time with Stuart Gary. This has been another quality podcast production from bitesz.com.