SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 74
*Are supermassive black holes collapsed dark matter halos
A new study suggests that supermassive black holes could be formed out of the collapse of dark matter halos.
*Sentinel’s ocean data starts flowing
After six months of check-out and calibration in orbit, the Sentinel-6A spacecraft has started providing its first data streams of the world’s oceans and how they’re being affected by global warming.
*Juno detects a new Jovian high energy radiation source
NASA’s Juno spacecraft has discovered a new heavy high energy radiation source in Jupiter’s radiation belts – which are already considered the most intense in the solar system.
*America launches three new spy satellites on a converted nuclear missile
NASA's Wallops Island Flight Facility on the Virginian mid Atlantic Coast has been a busy place of late with back to back rocket launches taking place.
*The Science Report
Study warns climate change is killing wildlife because when wild animals are hot, they eat less.
Researchers say drinking coffee may be good for your liver.
The world’s growing problem of microplastic pollution.
Study shows medium-sized dinosaur predators are wiped out from areas where T-Rex’s dominate.
Alex on Tech on the new TCL Wearable Display.
For more SpaceTime and show links: https://linktr.ee/biteszHQ
SpaceTime Series 24 Episode AI Transcript
[00:00:00] Stuart: [00:00:00] This is base time series 24 episode 74, 4 broadcast from the 30th of June, 2021. Coming up on spacetime as supermassive black holes collapsed, dark matter. Halos Sentinel sixes, ocean data starts flowing and Juno detects a new Jovi and high-energy radiation source. Oh, that and more coming up on space time.
Welcome to space time with steward, Gary.
And you study suggests that supermassive black holes could be formed from the collapse of dark matter halos black holes or points in space known as singularities, which consists of infinite density in zero volume, [00:01:00] a place where gravity so great escape velocity exceeds 300,000 kilometers per second.
The speed of light in a vacuum and the ultimate speed limit in the universe. And since nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. Nothing not even light can escape. A black hole. Astronomy has already know that it's still a mess. Black holes, uh, formed in the runaway collapse of massive stars, much bigger than the sun at the end of their lives.
However, the origins of larger supermassive black holes, which can be millions to billions of times the size of stellar mass, black holes are more difficult to explain. Supermassive black holes are found at the centers of most, if not all galaxies, the leading hypothesis has always been that they formed from the merger of many smaller stellar mass, black holes over cosmic time, but that doesn't stand up to examination.
She asked me to look further back in time. We can see the existence of supermassive black holes in the very early universe. [00:02:00] When there simply wouldn't have been enough time for them to grow that big, that quickly. Another hypothesis suggested they were formed directly out of the collapse of gas and dust in the super dense environment in the galactic center.
However, new observations suggest that this mechanism still can't produce enough seed black hole material that is unless the seed black hole experienced some sort of extremely fast growth rate. Now, a report in the astrophysical journal letters has suggested a new possibility. Super messy black holes could be created out of the collapse of a dark matter.
Halo adapt matter. Halo is a halo invisible matter surrounding a galaxy or a cluster of galaxies. Although scientists have never actually seen dark matter and have no idea what it's made out of. They've seen its gravitational impact on galaxies, preventing them from spinning apart as they rotate. In fact, estimates suggest up to 85% of all the matter in the universe is dark matter.
And gravitational lending suggests that it [00:03:00] forms halos around galaxies or more probably galaxies are formed within the halo of dark matter. The new studies author suggests that if dark matter has SOFE interaction, then the gravis thermal collapse of a halo of dark matter could lead to the creation of a seed supermassive black hole and the supermassive black holes growth would then be more consistent with general expectations.
So how it all this way. Well, according to the authors of self-directed dark matter, halo would experience Griffith thermal instability at its central region would then collapse into a seed black hole. The dark matter partic was first clustered together under the influence of gravity and form a dark matter halo.
During the evolution of the halo, there are two competing forces, gravity and pressure or gravity pool stack matter particles. Inwards pressure is pushing them out with. Now if dark matter particles, heaviness of interaction, then as gravity pulls them towards the central haler, they become hotter. That is they move faster.
[00:04:00] The pressure increases causing them to bounce back. However, in the case of self interacting, dark matter, dark matter, soften directions can transport the heat from those harder particles to cooler ones nearby. And they say that would make it difficult for dark matter particles to bounce back. As the central halo collapses the form of black hole, it would have angular momentum.
In other words, it rotates and the sulfur interactions would induce viscosity or friction that would dissipate that angular momentum during the collapse process, the central halo, which is a fixed mass would shrink in radius and slow down in rotation, cue to the viscosity. And as the evolution continues, the central halo eventually collapses into a singularity, the seed black hole.
And they said can grow more massively by creating surrounding baryonic. That is normal, visible man, such as gas and stars. The authors say vantage of this scenario is that the mass of the seed black hole will be high that's because it's produced by the collapse of a [00:05:00] dark matter halo to grow into a supermassive black hole over a relatively short time scale, the new works novel and that the researchers identify the importance of Berry on thirties, ordinary atomic, and molecular particles in order for the idea to work.
They say the presence of baryons such as gas and stars can significantly speed up the onset of gravity, thermal collapse of a halo. And so a sea black hole could be created early enough. It also shows that soft interactions can induce for scarcity, which dissipates the angular momentum room than in the central halo.
And it also provides a method to examine the condition for triggering general relativistic instability of the collapsed halo, which ensures that a seed black hole could form under the right conditions. This is space time still the camp Sentinel six as ocean data starts flowing. And this is Juno spacecraft.
The texts in you, Jovi and high energy radiation source, all that and more stored account. Oh, space-time
[00:06:00] after six months of checkout and calibration in orbit, a Sentinel six spacecraft has started providing its first data streams on the world's oceans and how they're being affected by global warming. Launched last November, the joint NASA European space agency, satellite is designed to measure sea surface Heights, wind speed, and wave Heights.
From over 90% of the world's oceans. These data streams will allow scientists to map changes in sea levels, highlighting anomalies faster, and with greater accuracy, Sentinel six says the first of two satellites developed as part of the Copernicus Sentinel six Jason continuity of service mission. The second satellite Sentinel six SPI is slated for launch in 2025 together.
They're the latest in a [00:07:00] series of spacecraft, which had been gathering precise ocean height measurements for nearly 30 years shortly after its launch Sentinel six, eight, moved into an orbital position trailing the Jason three C-level reference satellite by 30 seconds site. As the engineers have been cross calibrating, the data collected by the two satellites to ensure the continuity of measurements between them.
Scientists use the sea surface height data to gauge how fast sea levels are rising around the world. The measurements also help forecasters predict things like ocean currents and potential hurricane strength, more than 90% of the heat trapped in the earth system due to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases is absorbed by the ocean and this heat causes sea water to expand.
In fact, the expansion of seawater accounts for about a third of modern day sea level rise. Well, Meltwater from glaciers and ice sheets accounts for the rest. The rate at which the ocean's arising has accelerated over the [00:08:00] past two decades. And research is expected to further speed up in coming years, Sentinel six project scientist, Josh Willis from NASA's jet propulsion laboratory in Pasadena, California says several months from now, Sentinel six, say will take over from its predecessor.
Jason. And this first data release is the first step in that process.
Spend a few minutes on any beach and you'll realize just how much the ocean can transform the shore. I'm Josh Willis, project scientist for the Sentinel six, Michael Freilich satellite, a new earth observing satellite that will give us the ability to track and understand sea level rise. Like never before we're here at NASA's jet propulsion laboratory.
And we're really excited about this new satellite. It will extend the record of sea level rise. Another decade past the 30 years, we already. And allow us to see how sea levels not only [00:09:00] rising, but how it's accelerating. This has huge consequences for the planet because sea level rise is one of the most important consequences of human caused.
Global warming sea levels are rising at a faster and faster rate every day. We need these measurements to help us predict how quickly flooding will increase across the planet. Sentinel six will also bring us higher resolution measurements of sea level, which is incredibly important near the coastline where currents are narrow and changes can be difficult to observe from space currents in the ocean.
Tilt the sea surface, making sea level high on one side and low on the other. Also warm water stands taller than. So C-level measurements. Tell us about both ocean currents and ocean heat. Ocean it's affect our daily lives because the ocean has a strong impact on climate in the west. The Pacific ocean, strongly determines droughts and rainfall.
Hurricane forecasting [00:10:00] uses satellite altimetry to help predict how much hurricanes will intensify ocean conditions can change quickly and forecasters the data in near real time to predict how currents and Marine weather will change across the globe. We're excited about the technical capabilities of this new satellite and the prospect of another 10 years of C-level measurements.
That Sentinel six project scientist, Josh Willis from NASA's jet propulsion laboratory in Pasadena, California. And this is space time still the com Juna detects a new Jovian high energy radiation source and America launches three new spy satellites on a converted nuclear missile, all that and more store to come.
Um, space time.
[00:11:00] NASA's Juno spacecraft has discovered a new high energy radiation source in Jupiter's radiation belts, which are already considered the most intense in the solar system. The spacecraft orbits the gas giant in a highly elongated polar orbit. The Zionist slide between the Jovian radiation belts avoiding as much of Jupiter's damaging radiation as possible.
And then swooping down the skim just 3,400 kilometers above the swirling, Jovi and CloudOps before swinging back out to more than 8 million kilometers. The further protect, you know, from Jupiter's deadly radiation, the spacecraft's most delicate instruments and control systems are housed in, especially shoot at StrongBox Juno's unique orbit Tatum, closer to the solar system's largest planet than any other spacecraft has ever done.
This is a ladder to undertake the first complete latitude in a longitudinal study of Jupiter's radiation belt. And it's that which has resulted in the [00:12:00] discovery of this new population of heavy high energy giggle, electron volt ions trapped Jupiter's mid-latitudes rather than is he a pedicle detector or spectrometer?
The authors made their discovery using a new technique involving the spacecraft star tracking camera system to observe them quantify the ions. Star Trek is technically called a reference units, a high resolution navigational cameras designed the computer spacecraft precise orientation based on the position of known stars in the sky.
The star track is on Juno are among the most heavily sheared the components on the spacecraft with six times more radiation protection than any other systems in the radiation. Yet, despite its heavy protection, ions and electrons with very high energies, still occasionally penetrate the shielding, hitting the stellar reference unit sensor.
The authors are focused on 118 unusual events that seemed to have hit harder than typical penetrating electrons. A combination of computer modeling and laboratory experiments allow the authors to [00:13:00] determined that these heavy ions hit with between 10 and a hundred times more energy than the usual penetrating protons and electrons, which are usually the most common radiation particles.
And further computer simulations allowed the scientists that determined the types of particles responsible for these higher energy radiation impacts finding that ion species ranging from his light helium up to his heaviest sulfur could account for at least some of the observed impacts and even the less massive end of the range say helium through the oxygen could still account for all of the strikes.
If they hit with enough energy and excessive, say a hundred mega electron volts per nuclear. The study also determined that these high radiation areas were in the inner region of Jupiter synchrotron emission region, which is located between 1.12 and 1.4, one Jovian radio out at magnetic latitudes ranging from 31 to 46 degrees, a region that hadn't previously been explored.
Juno was launched back on August the fifth, 2011 from Cape Canaveral [00:14:00] on a mission to stated the chemical composition of Cebadors immense atmosphere and cloud structure peering deep below the obscuring CloudOps probing convection currents, and the thermal engines driving its circulation patterns and spectacular surface where the features it's cyclonic storms and it's iconic salmon and cream colored atmospheric bands.
Juno has also measured Jupiter's gravity field in order to better understand its internal structure. And it studying its magnetic field polar magnetosphere and auroral activity 3,625 kilogram spacecraft achieved jovial orbit insertion on July the fifth 2016. The original plans caught for a total of 37 orbits around the 143,000 kilometer wide planet.
With the original 53 point fourth day, polar orbits eventually contracting down to just 14 earth days. However those plans were scrapped, fallen, consents about the spacecraft's main engine, meaning that all the orbits would remain at [00:15:00] 53.4 earth days. And that should have meant fewer overall orbits. The good news is that June has been coping with Jupiter's extreme radiation builds better than expected, and that's allowed the mission to extend to its original 37 orbits.
This is space-time still the comm America launches three new spy satellites on a converted nuclear missile. And later in the science report, researchers say that drinking coffee could be good for your liver, all that and more store to come on. Space time.
Masses wallop silent flight facility on the Virginia Mid-Atlantic coast has been a busy place of late with back to back rocket launches, taking place. First to fly with a classified intelligence and surveillance gathering NRO L [00:16:00] 111 payloads for the national reconnaissance office, a board, a Northrop Grumman Minotaur, one rocket from pad Sera B verify auto sequencer started out of sequencer.
Started TCC activate arm enabled, enabled PCC our modems PCC armor Ryans RPCC armed boosters are a copy of that. PM's go for line. Copy checks five, mark four pre.
partnership with NASA wallet, split facility and minute supersonic vehicle power is nominal
nominal stock three stage one. Thrust is over 200,000. That's the PM copies mock for vehicles now half its original mass stage one step stage two ignition confirmed outer [00:17:00] nominal pickles flight path and attitude or nominal vehicle avionics and power system are performing as expected. It's a flight path and attitude are nominal approaching stage two burnout vehicles.
Now one quarter it's original map HD print out confirm space force provided loan services for the three top secret payloads, which were successfully placed into orbit. The mission was the third small launch. You a space force flight from wall up silent and the second dedicated national reconnaissance flight from Wallops in the past 12 months, the national reconnaissance office is the intelligence community element and a department of defense agency responsible for developing, acquiring, launching, and operating America's spy satellites.
The 21 meter tall Minotaur. One launch vehicle uses a pair of solid fuel rocket engines from decommission Minuteman, Intercontinental ballistic missiles for its lowest stage and two solid fuel commercial rocket engines for the upper stages. The NRO launch was followed a few days later by the flight of a NASA terrier, improved a Ryan suborbital, sounding [00:18:00] rocket carrying part of the rock on educational skills, science payload.
The mission included more than 70 middle school, high school and university experiments. The sounding rocket flew the student experiments through an altitude of nearly 120 kilometers or 386,000 feet on a ballistic suborbital trajectory. The experiments were returned the surface by parachute splashing down to the Atlantic ocean from where they were recovered by a pre-positioned boat, which had been waiting down rain.
Another 34 rock on experiments will make their journey to the edge of space, a border science platform on a special high altitude NASA scientific balloon, which will launch from Fort Sumner in New Mexico. Later this year, this space-time
and Tom Matta. Take another brief. Look at some of the other stories, making, using science. With a science [00:19:00] report and you study is found that climate change is killing wildlife because when wild animals are hot, they eat less potentially fatal phenomenon that has been largely overlooked until now a report in the journal trends in ecology in evolution has found that HeartWare, that puts all animals off their food humans deal with it fairly well because they usually have plenty of fat reserves and lots of different food options.
But it's much more serious for animals, especially those with highly specialized diets. If they don't eat regularly, they simply don't meet their nutritional requirements to stay alive. And Australia's iconic Marsupial's animals. Like the greater glider also get most of their water from their food. So not eating also means dehydration.
The findings by scientists from the Australian national university means climate change could be contributing more to deaths among Australian wildlife than had previously been thought. And you study has shown that drinking [00:20:00] coffee doesn't just help you kickstart the day. It could be good for your liver as well.
A report in the journal of the British medical council, public health has found an association between coffee and a reduced risk of developing chronic liver disease and related liver condition. And the authors found the effects were just as good for both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee. And it didn't matter if the coffee was ground or instant.
The author say that compared to people who didn't drink coffee, coffee, consumers had a 21% reduced risk of chronic liver disease. At 20% reduced risk of chronic or fatty liver disease and a 49% reduced risk of death from chronic liver disease. Scientists believe that higher levels of car wall and Kapha Stein, ground golf, it could be playing a part as these ingredients had previously been shown to be beneficial against liver issues.
However, instant coffee, which has low levels of these two ingredients was also found to be beneficial, which means there must be other ingredients in coffee, which are also playing a part. [00:21:00] A new study has found that simply opening a plastic bag or bottle is enough to worse in the woods. Growing problem of microplastic pollution and potentially affecting human health.
The findings published in the journals scientific reports as shown that opening plastic packaging, such as plastic bags and bottles generate small amounts of microplastics, plastics less than five millimeters long. Cited store open chocolate wrappers, Katter, TC tape, and open plastic bottles, and then use chemical tests and microscopes to assess the microplastics released.
They found that while cutting or twisting around three meters of plastic around 10 to 30 nanograms of plastics were generated and study is found that medium-sized dinosaur predators would disappear from areas where tyrannosaurs dominated. The findings reported in the Canadian journal of earth sciences support earlier anecdotal report of a dramatic drop off in diversity of medium-sized predator, species and communities dominated [00:22:00] by Tyrannosaurus Rex and its close relatives.
At the same time, paleontologist found that the diversity of prey species did not decline. And that suggests that medium-sized predators didn't disappear because of a Trop off in their prey. The findings follow earliest studies showing that young Terada sores were faster and more agile than their parents and likely hunted prey.
Similar to that eaten by fast, the more agile medium-sized dinosaurs. It seems that as tyrannosaurs evolved and grew to dominance, fare juveniles, simply out competed other kinds of Restonic sows in the middle size rain. Tail Sierra about to introduce the new wearable monitors. Basically a pair of glasses fitted with 2 10 80 mini Ole D screens.
Were the details with John by technology editor, Alex how're of Roy from ity.com. Yes. Well, TCL has launched a product called the TCL. Next were gee, these are glasses, but these are not high glasses. These are not VR glasses. These are simply [00:23:00] the effectively a monitor that you put onto your head, but with glasses.
So they look like a pair of sunglasses. You look into them. You got a pair of Sony, full XD, overhead displays one on either side and it looks like a 140 inch display, four meters from your face. The glasses themselves are a hundred grams. The cable, the USB-C cable is 30 grams. So there's no wifi. There's no battery.
There's no onboard process or it's just a display and it plugs into any device. It cannot put to a USB-C video, which is most devices these days would have, so they can use it as a portable monitor. It doesn't block your vision so I can look down, you can look to the sides, you can see the kids that are running around, or if you're in a bus or a train, you can see people are next to you.
No, one's going to bunk you over the head with something to try and steal them from you. And there'll be on sale in Australia. There'll be $899 and nine future. They'll have wireless versions of no doubt. Later this decade, we're going to see the payout and VR glasses from apple. Seeing these sorts of glasses from 20 years ago, I had a [00:24:00] VGA version that did six 40 by four 80, has the VGA plug.
It was sort of very primitive. I've actually used these glasses a couple of months ago at a event that TCL had where they were showing some of these things. Often. I wish I could have walked out the door with one of them and it was just very cool. So it's been a bit of a wipe for window going to appear, but Australia will be pretty much one of the first places in the world to get it and I'm looking forward to it.
And I think it'll be very popular. From ity.com
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