SpaceTime Series 24 Episode 125
*The early solar system harboured a gap between its inner and outer regions
Astronomers have discovered an ancient gap in the protoplanetary disk which coalesced to form our solar system 4.6 billion years ago.
*Growing calls for a manned scientific base on the Moon
A meeting of 350 astronomers and gravitational wave scientists have agreed to support proposals to develop a manned scientific observatory on the Moon.
*Ariane 5 sets new record on latest launch
An Ariane 5 has launched its heaviest payload yet into geostationary transfer orbit.
*The Science Report
Average life expectancy declining in several English communities.
Soybean, nuts, canola oils and flaxseed associated with a lower risk of death.
Discovery of a unique second Temple-era purple and lilac amethyst seal in Jerusalem.
Alex on Tech: new widespread malware campaign
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SpaceTime with Stuart Gary S24E125 AI Transcript
This is space time series 24 episode 125 for broadcast on the 3rd of November, 2021. Coming up on space time. New studies suggest the early solar system habit, a gap between its inner and outer regions growing cause for a man scientific base on the lunar surface and Arianne five sets a new record on its latest launch or that, and more coming up o space-time.
Welcome to space time with Stuart Gary.
Astronomers have discovered an ancient gap in the predit planetary disc, which coalesced to form our solar system. 4.6 billion years ago. The findings reported in the journal science advances based on a new analysis of ancient meteorites. It suggests that a mysterious gap exists that around 4.56, 7 billion years ago, roughly where the main asteroid belt is today between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
One of the study's authors, Benjamin vice from MIT. The Massachusetts Institute of technology says over the past decade observations have shown that cavities gaps and rings are common in protoplanetary discs around young stars. These are important, but poorly understood signatures, the physical processes by which molecular clouds of gas and dust condense the form stars and planets.
But the exact cause of this gap in our early solar system remains a mystery. One possibility is that the gas giant Jupiter, our king of planets may have been an influence as Jupiter took shape its immense gravitational pull could have pushed gas and dust towards the outskirts of the solar system, leaving behind a gap in the developing disc.
But another explanation has to do with a wind emerging from the surface of the protoplanetary disk C early planetary systems, uh, governed by strong magnetic fields. When these fields interact with a rotating disc of gas and dust, they can produce winds powerful enough to blow material out, leaving behind a gap in the disc, regardless of its origins.
A gap in the early solar system likely served as a sort of cosmic boundary keeping material on either side from interacting and this physical separation could have shaped the composition of the solar systems planet. For instance on the inner side of the gap, gas and dust coalesced, it's the terrestrial planets, mercury Venus earth and Mars while gas and dust really get it to the father's side of the gap formed in ICO regions as the gas and ice.
Jain's Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. So this would have provided a boundary between the inner and outer solar system with a planet needing a lot of external talk and momentum in order to cross the. The new findings are based on the discovery of a curious split in the composition of media rights, which have made their way to worth these space rocks originally formed at different times and locations as the solar system was taking shape.
Those that have been analyzed exhibit one of two isotopic combinations. In fact, rarely have meteorites been found to exhibit both a conundrum, which has become known as isotopic dichotomy. And this dichotomy may, will be the result of a gap in the early solar systems. Protoplanetary disk. We think colleagues analyze meteorites for science of magnetic fields.
As a young planetary system take shape, it carries with it a magnetic field and the strength and direction of that field can change depending on various processes within the evolving. As ancient dust gathered into tiny grains, known as controls electrons within these chondrules aligned with the magnetic field in which they formed.
The author said previously analyzed samples from one of the two isotopic groups of meteorites. These ones known as non carbonaceous, uh, thought of originated close to the sun. The new research looked at whether the magnetic field would be the same in the second isotopic group known as carbonaceous meteorites, which are thought of originated further out in the solar system.
Surprisingly, the authors found that the field strength was stronger than for the non carbonaceous meteorites previously measured. In fact, about a hundred micro Teslas compared to a field of 50 micro Teslas. As young planetary systems are taking shape, scientists expected. The strength of the magnetic field would decay with distance from the sun.
A planetary systems magnetic field is a measure of its accretion rate or the amount of gas and deaths that can draw her into its center over time. Based on the carbonaceous chondrites magnetic field, the solar systems outer region, must've been creating much more mass than the inner region. The most likely explanation for this mismatch in accretion rates is the existence of a gap between the inner and outer regions, which could have reduced the amount of gas and dust flowing towards the sun from the outer regions.
This is space time. Still the com growing Coles for a man scientific base on the lunar surface. And Europe's Aryan five sits a new launch record on its latest flight, all that and more store to come on. Space time.
Uh, mating of three engine 50 astronomers and gravitational wave scientists have agreed to support proposals for the development of a man scientific observatory on the lunar surface. The first international workshop on gravitational wave detection on the moon brought together leading experts in the field of gravitational wave physics, planetary sciences, and lunar exploration.
They discussed the geophysical properties of the moon. And the opportunity is a lunar observatory would provide for research into fundamental physics and astronomy discussions. Highlighted the possibility that a gravitational wave detector on the moon could provide a more complete understanding of where gravitational waves come from.
And the orbit of the moon around the earth would significantly increase the ability to triangulate the position of those sources. Turning our moon into a resonant and 10 of her messages from across the universe would be an historical achievement. The workshops code chair, Corinne Jannie from Vanderbilt university says Luna, gravitational wave detectors could probe some of the most important questions about the universe from the nature of the mysterious force called dark energy through to the birth of the very first stars ending the cosmic dark age.
He says many of the technologies needed for this kind of research are already being developed by space agencies and major private companies. The meeting comes in the wake of growing efforts by NASA and the European space agency to return here, miss the lunar surface and use the moon as a jumping off point for deep space missions to Mars and beyond Jannie believes science is now at the Dawn of venues space age with the moon at the center of campaigns in coming years.
He says opportunities for breakthrough science exist through partnerships with other feature detectors. Yani believes it's only a matter of time before graduate students start taking shifts on the moon. The idea is to put a gravitational wave facility, uh, that can see this whole dark side of the universe that we had not seen as, as a civilization.
We figured out that the moon is perhaps the best place in our solar system to actually find that. So the idea is to go to the moon return back, build facility that and detect gravitational. The moon, it's almost like a natural place meant to detect gravitational waves. The environment that itself is vacuum.
So you could put something on the surface and still have better vacuum than the best we have on earth. On top of that, uh, there is no environmental disturbances. We don't get wind. We don't have lightning. We don't have outbreaks. We have moonquakes, but they're not. Strong. And often we are pretty, you know, in a secure location once we.
The final benefit as of now, is there is no human noise. I mean, we don't have heavy machineries that we don't have adequate means and helicopters or trucks going around. So wherever we put our instrument, it is going to have like this spiritual quietness needed to detect on gravitational waves. It is incoming years.
It is possible to have infrastructure on the moon in the same scale as we have at seven. More challenging locations or not. Let's say the south know where we have a particular science laboratories that the United States has a big presence in the same sense. We hope to have moon as a place where, you know, not that we want to go often, but at least we could have scientific instruments.
So once we overcome this bad. Offline living on the moon. That is a whole new window that opens for our civilization to prove the laws of the universe. That's current journey from Vanderbilt university. And this is space time stolen com Europe, sorry. On five sets, a new launch record on its latest flight.
And later in the science report and you study as worn that average life expectancy is declining in several English community. Oh that a more though to come on space time,
uh, European Ariane five rocket has launched its heaviest payload yet into geostationary or. Michigan VA 2 55. Blast that off from the European space agencies, Korea, spaceport, and French Guiana carrying the SES 17 in Syracuse for a telecommunication satellites, whichever combined mass of 10,263 kilograms
dude. How do you imagine.
the area has just successfully completed its liftoff. Other equally important steps are still to come. These include the separation of the two satellites on board Syracuse 48. Yeah, 17, which should reach their geostationary position about 30 minutes. Is that correct? David, you are also connected with Caruvia and earpiece where the CVI transmits all the information concerning the evolution of the emission.
What is the CVI and how does it work? I have a direct link with a CVA team. Uh, Uh, team located in CU who receives the real-time flight data send by the launcher to the tracking stations right now, they confirmed that all the parameters are, are as expected. This parameters include the altitude, the velocity, the engine parameters.
19 seconds from liftoff, the CVI should announce, am I right? The separation of the boosters? Is that the first thing is this step for the mission, David? Yeah. I seen a few seconds that booster separation should take place. The, uh, launcher will have gone through most. Through the most distressful part of the launch stressful.
Yes. In terms of mechanical loads, dynamic pressure. And there was the separation will be at around 65 kilometers and traveling at the speed of Mac 6.5. So it should come up in just a few seconds.
Okay. So this stage is the first of many and in a few seconds, Ariane will be at an altitude of 110 kilometers and the DDO will then be announcing the separation of the fairing. What can you tell us about this particular stage, David? Yeah. So at 110 kilometer altitude, the atmosphere has become really thin, only a few where party culture.
So at this point, a fairing, which is there to protect the satellites from atmosphere, the heat and the sound that liftoff and during the ascent is no longer needed. So it is jettison to, to save weight. So this again should happen in just about 10 seconds. This is an important moment as well. Well, every stage is important that every.
We just waiting now a couple of seconds for the separation of the fairing.
So we have the confirmation from the brilliant. So by separating from its Ferring, Aryan five, what will now be approximate two tons lighter, which is a significant weight in flight. SES 17. One of the two satellites launched tonight had a launch mass of more than six tons. And it is one of the 10 heaviest telecommunications satellites launched by Irina specimens, its creation.
So at this stage of the launch, we have a launch of the ways what, and is traveling at what speed as the launcher was about 780 tons of liftoff. Right now we have only. 149 thumbs left. And the speed is about 2.7 kilometers per second, which is about a third of what we need to reach at the end of the flight.
We will be about 9.3 kilometers per second, and 411 kilogram SES 17 booked by fella. Selenia space was the first to be deployed. The satellite will provide almost 200 K band spot beams of mixed sizes providing broadband coverage over the Americas, the Caribbean and the Atlantic ocean with special optimization for commercial aviation.
It was followed minutes later by the deployment of the 3,853 kilogram French military Syracuse for a communication settled. Syracuse foray will provide secure communications between French armed forces. And we'll also support NATO and European led operations. Both satellites carry enough fuel for a design service life of 15 years.
The launch MOC, the 111th mission for the Ariane five rocket. Its next flight will launch the James Webb space telescope. Fish spacetime
and time out of take another brief. Look at some of the other stories making use in science this week with a science. A new study has shown that it's substantial. Number of English communities experienced a decline in life expectancy between 2010 and 2019. That's prior to the spirit of COVID-19 the findings reported in the Lancet medical journal show that in the five years before the pandemic that's 2014 through to 2019 life expectancy went down and almost one in five British communities for women and one in nine.
The researchers from Imperial college, London also found that communities with the lowest life expectancy below 70 and 75 years for men and women, respectively were typically situated in urban areas in the north of England. The clients in life expectancy used to be rare in wealthy countries like the UK.
And it usually only happened when there were major incidents like wars or pandemic. So, although recent data from the office of national statistics found that life expectancy for men in the UK had fallen for the first time in 40 years due to the China virus, the new research shows that life expectancy was already declining in many communities years before the current pandemic began communities with the lowest life expectancy were typically located in urban areas in the north, including Leeds, Newcastle, Manchester, Liverpool, and Blackbird.
On the other hand communities with the highest life expectancy in the UK, we're often based in London and the surrounding home counties. And you studied shows that a fatty acid found in plants, including soy beans, nuts, canola rolls, and flaxseed is associated with a lower risk of death. The findings reported in the British medical journal, based on 41 studies, looking at a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is alpha linolenic acid and how its consumption affected the risk of death from all causes, including heart disease and cancer reset.
You say a high intake of alpha linolenic acid was associated with a 10% lower risk of old cause death and 8% lower risk of cardiovascular disease and 11% lower risk of coronary heart disease. However, the researchers also found the risk of cancer appeared to be slightly higher. And so more research is needed to clarify this aspect.
Archeologists have uncovered a unique second temple era purple and lilac. Amethysts seal at a dig site near the Western wall wailing wall of the temple Mount in Jerusalem. The impressive 10 millimeter oval seal, which would have been worn as a ring bears, the image of a dove and a branch of a persimmon plan.
The use of seals became common in Israel towards the end of the second Jewish temple period. Some 2000 years ago, usually depicting vines states and olives persimmon plants were one of the ingredients used for incense produced for the ancient Jewish temple, as well as for medicines, ointments and perfumes Bible commentators say per was also one of the gifts given by the queen of Sheba to king Solomon.
They built the first Jewish temple in Jerusalem 3000 years ago. And the dove well, it was a positive motive in Hellenistic, Roman and Jewish worlds, symbolizing, happiness, goodness and success. A widespread malware campaign is silently injecting ads in a search results affecting multiple browsers, exposing the attacker's intent to infect as many internet users as possible.
With the details we're joined by technology editor, Alex Harrow Freud from ity dot. Yeah. Microsoft has put out through its defender research team, a warning that there is a new malware threat called ad Rosich. And this is targeting Microsoft edge, Google Chrome, the Yandex browser from Russia and Mozilla Firefox.
And what it's doing is it's taking over the ads that normally you'd see from Google or from other ad providers. And it's putting its own adjuncts in there probably. Uh, capturing all of the ad revenue, you know, that people are saying, and also through advertising affiliate programs, but also it's got malware on your computer modifying DLL files from your browsers modifying the browser halls.
And obviously these days, the bad guys are trying to get past the different anti-malware programs that are out there because, you know, if I can, if I can capture even a tiny percentage of. Enormous classic on the internet. I can make a lot of money. So clearly this is a warning. You know, a lot of people are coming across their computers and I see they have weird popups.
I have a look in Google Chrome and I see weed extensions within unaware that are there and they're not running something like Malwarebytes or, you know, they're not running the latest internet security software. Now Microsoft is saying that its own windows defender can handle this, but personally I beginning getting something like malware.
Whether the free version or the paid version that proactively targets the sorts of things. And I'd be running a clean, a computer as possible with as few extensions as possible. I know people love to put attention to the, up the wazoo in the Firefox and fiery and crab. I like to run no extensions, very few extensions, you know, basically none, because that way your browser experience is fast and clean and you avoid we'd pop ups in these weird ads.
Just the consequences of having malware on your computer. I mean, the big threat is going to be the exfiltration of data, which will then be held to ransom. So not only will the bad guys be encrypting your computer and demanding the ransomware, but they'll also steal the data off your computer and then contact you.
And this is normally for companies, not for individuals, because I look, we've got your customer database, we have your IP passive and more money, or we'll release this at embarrassing. So it's very, very important to make sure you have as much security software on your computer as possible. I mean, without going overboard, you don't want to have.
That's certainly a good internet security. Also a problem. When you have conflicts with other security programs, I mean, you definitely don't want to have Norton and trends or Norton Kaspersky. You want to just have one internet security program, but I've found a good combination is to have one of those internet security programs and also Malwarebytes and Malwarebytes.
I put her in many people's computers and you go and have a look later on what I was able to find, and it's incredible the browser exploits, but this detects and stops. I only see things like Norton or other security programs getting some of the time now, whereby seems to be a great companion program. I mean, even though Microsoft is saying that their software can detect this new ad, reject your malware, I certainly wouldn't be relying upon the built-in security of windows.
And in fact, I'd be getting a Mac. I mean, I stopped using windows about a decade ago. Well, 2011, I got a Mac. And as I say, once you go Mac, you don't go back. From ity.com
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